cpuset.c 47.8 KB
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/*
 *  kernel/cpuset.c
 *
 *  Processor and Memory placement constraints for sets of tasks.
 *
 *  Copyright (C) 2003 BULL SA.
 *  Copyright (C) 2004 Silicon Graphics, Inc.
 *
 *  Portions derived from Patrick Mochel's sysfs code.
 *  sysfs is Copyright (c) 2001-3 Patrick Mochel
 *  Portions Copyright (c) 2004 Silicon Graphics, Inc.
 *
 *  2003-10-10 Written by Simon Derr <simon.derr@bull.net>
 *  2003-10-22 Updates by Stephen Hemminger.
 *  2004 May-July Rework by Paul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
 *
 *  This file is subject to the terms and conditions of the GNU General Public
 *  License.  See the file COPYING in the main directory of the Linux
 *  distribution for more details.
 */

#include <linux/config.h>
#include <linux/cpu.h>
#include <linux/cpumask.h>
#include <linux/cpuset.h>
#include <linux/err.h>
#include <linux/errno.h>
#include <linux/file.h>
#include <linux/fs.h>
#include <linux/init.h>
#include <linux/interrupt.h>
#include <linux/kernel.h>
#include <linux/kmod.h>
#include <linux/list.h>
#include <linux/mm.h>
#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/mount.h>
#include <linux/namei.h>
#include <linux/pagemap.h>
#include <linux/proc_fs.h>
#include <linux/sched.h>
#include <linux/seq_file.h>
#include <linux/slab.h>
#include <linux/smp_lock.h>
#include <linux/spinlock.h>
#include <linux/stat.h>
#include <linux/string.h>
#include <linux/time.h>
#include <linux/backing-dev.h>
#include <linux/sort.h>

#include <asm/uaccess.h>
#include <asm/atomic.h>
#include <asm/semaphore.h>

#define CPUSET_SUPER_MAGIC 		0x27e0eb

struct cpuset {
	unsigned long flags;		/* "unsigned long" so bitops work */
	cpumask_t cpus_allowed;		/* CPUs allowed to tasks in cpuset */
	nodemask_t mems_allowed;	/* Memory Nodes allowed to tasks */

	atomic_t count;			/* count tasks using this cpuset */

	/*
	 * We link our 'sibling' struct into our parents 'children'.
	 * Our children link their 'sibling' into our 'children'.
	 */
	struct list_head sibling;	/* my parents children */
	struct list_head children;	/* my children */

	struct cpuset *parent;		/* my parent */
	struct dentry *dentry;		/* cpuset fs entry */

	/*
	 * Copy of global cpuset_mems_generation as of the most
	 * recent time this cpuset changed its mems_allowed.
	 */
	 int mems_generation;
};

/* bits in struct cpuset flags field */
typedef enum {
	CS_CPU_EXCLUSIVE,
	CS_MEM_EXCLUSIVE,
	CS_REMOVED,
	CS_NOTIFY_ON_RELEASE
} cpuset_flagbits_t;

/* convenient tests for these bits */
static inline int is_cpu_exclusive(const struct cpuset *cs)
{
	return !!test_bit(CS_CPU_EXCLUSIVE, &cs->flags);
}

static inline int is_mem_exclusive(const struct cpuset *cs)
{
	return !!test_bit(CS_MEM_EXCLUSIVE, &cs->flags);
}

static inline int is_removed(const struct cpuset *cs)
{
	return !!test_bit(CS_REMOVED, &cs->flags);
}

static inline int notify_on_release(const struct cpuset *cs)
{
	return !!test_bit(CS_NOTIFY_ON_RELEASE, &cs->flags);
}

/*
 * Increment this atomic integer everytime any cpuset changes its
 * mems_allowed value.  Users of cpusets can track this generation
 * number, and avoid having to lock and reload mems_allowed unless
 * the cpuset they're using changes generation.
 *
 * A single, global generation is needed because attach_task() could
 * reattach a task to a different cpuset, which must not have its
 * generation numbers aliased with those of that tasks previous cpuset.
 *
 * Generations are needed for mems_allowed because one task cannot
 * modify anothers memory placement.  So we must enable every task,
 * on every visit to __alloc_pages(), to efficiently check whether
 * its current->cpuset->mems_allowed has changed, requiring an update
 * of its current->mems_allowed.
 */
static atomic_t cpuset_mems_generation = ATOMIC_INIT(1);

static struct cpuset top_cpuset = {
	.flags = ((1 << CS_CPU_EXCLUSIVE) | (1 << CS_MEM_EXCLUSIVE)),
	.cpus_allowed = CPU_MASK_ALL,
	.mems_allowed = NODE_MASK_ALL,
	.count = ATOMIC_INIT(0),
	.sibling = LIST_HEAD_INIT(top_cpuset.sibling),
	.children = LIST_HEAD_INIT(top_cpuset.children),
	.parent = NULL,
	.dentry = NULL,
	.mems_generation = 0,
};

static struct vfsmount *cpuset_mount;
static struct super_block *cpuset_sb = NULL;

/*
 * cpuset_sem should be held by anyone who is depending on the children
 * or sibling lists of any cpuset, or performing non-atomic operations
 * on the flags or *_allowed values of a cpuset, such as raising the
 * CS_REMOVED flag bit iff it is not already raised, or reading and
 * conditionally modifying the *_allowed values.  One kernel global
 * cpuset semaphore should be sufficient - these things don't change
 * that much.
 *
 * The code that modifies cpusets holds cpuset_sem across the entire
 * operation, from cpuset_common_file_write() down, single threading
 * all cpuset modifications (except for counter manipulations from
 * fork and exit) across the system.  This presumes that cpuset
 * modifications are rare - better kept simple and safe, even if slow.
 *
 * The code that reads cpusets, such as in cpuset_common_file_read()
 * and below, only holds cpuset_sem across small pieces of code, such
 * as when reading out possibly multi-word cpumasks and nodemasks, as
 * the risks are less, and the desire for performance a little greater.
 * The proc_cpuset_show() routine needs to hold cpuset_sem to insure
 * that no cs->dentry is NULL, as it walks up the cpuset tree to root.
 *
 * The hooks from fork and exit, cpuset_fork() and cpuset_exit(), don't
 * (usually) grab cpuset_sem.  These are the two most performance
 * critical pieces of code here.  The exception occurs on exit(),
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 * when a task in a notify_on_release cpuset exits.  Then cpuset_sem
 * is taken, and if the cpuset count is zero, a usermode call made
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 * to /sbin/cpuset_release_agent with the name of the cpuset (path
 * relative to the root of cpuset file system) as the argument.
 *
 * A cpuset can only be deleted if both its 'count' of using tasks is
 * zero, and its list of 'children' cpusets is empty.  Since all tasks
 * in the system use _some_ cpuset, and since there is always at least
 * one task in the system (init, pid == 1), therefore, top_cpuset
 * always has either children cpusets and/or using tasks.  So no need
 * for any special hack to ensure that top_cpuset cannot be deleted.
 */

static DECLARE_MUTEX(cpuset_sem);
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static struct task_struct *cpuset_sem_owner;
static int cpuset_sem_depth;
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/*
 * The global cpuset semaphore cpuset_sem can be needed by the
 * memory allocator to update a tasks mems_allowed (see the calls
 * to cpuset_update_current_mems_allowed()) or to walk up the
 * cpuset hierarchy to find a mem_exclusive cpuset see the calls
 * to cpuset_excl_nodes_overlap()).
 *
 * But if the memory allocation is being done by cpuset.c code, it
 * usually already holds cpuset_sem.  Double tripping on a kernel
 * semaphore deadlocks the current task, and any other task that
 * subsequently tries to obtain the lock.
 *
 * Run all up's and down's on cpuset_sem through the following
 * wrappers, which will detect this nested locking, and avoid
 * deadlocking.
 */

static inline void cpuset_down(struct semaphore *psem)
{
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	if (cpuset_sem_owner != current) {
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		down(psem);
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		cpuset_sem_owner = current;
	}
	cpuset_sem_depth++;
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}

static inline void cpuset_up(struct semaphore *psem)
{
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	if (--cpuset_sem_depth == 0) {
		cpuset_sem_owner = NULL;
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		up(psem);
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	}
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}

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/*
 * A couple of forward declarations required, due to cyclic reference loop:
 *  cpuset_mkdir -> cpuset_create -> cpuset_populate_dir -> cpuset_add_file
 *  -> cpuset_create_file -> cpuset_dir_inode_operations -> cpuset_mkdir.
 */

static int cpuset_mkdir(struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry, int mode);
static int cpuset_rmdir(struct inode *unused_dir, struct dentry *dentry);

static struct backing_dev_info cpuset_backing_dev_info = {
	.ra_pages = 0,		/* No readahead */
	.capabilities	= BDI_CAP_NO_ACCT_DIRTY | BDI_CAP_NO_WRITEBACK,
};

static struct inode *cpuset_new_inode(mode_t mode)
{
	struct inode *inode = new_inode(cpuset_sb);

	if (inode) {
		inode->i_mode = mode;
		inode->i_uid = current->fsuid;
		inode->i_gid = current->fsgid;
		inode->i_blksize = PAGE_CACHE_SIZE;
		inode->i_blocks = 0;
		inode->i_atime = inode->i_mtime = inode->i_ctime = CURRENT_TIME;
		inode->i_mapping->backing_dev_info = &cpuset_backing_dev_info;
	}
	return inode;
}

static void cpuset_diput(struct dentry *dentry, struct inode *inode)
{
	/* is dentry a directory ? if so, kfree() associated cpuset */
	if (S_ISDIR(inode->i_mode)) {
		struct cpuset *cs = dentry->d_fsdata;
		BUG_ON(!(is_removed(cs)));
		kfree(cs);
	}
	iput(inode);
}

static struct dentry_operations cpuset_dops = {
	.d_iput = cpuset_diput,
};

static struct dentry *cpuset_get_dentry(struct dentry *parent, const char *name)
{
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	struct dentry *d = lookup_one_len(name, parent, strlen(name));
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	if (!IS_ERR(d))
		d->d_op = &cpuset_dops;
	return d;
}

static void remove_dir(struct dentry *d)
{
	struct dentry *parent = dget(d->d_parent);

	d_delete(d);
	simple_rmdir(parent->d_inode, d);
	dput(parent);
}

/*
 * NOTE : the dentry must have been dget()'ed
 */
static void cpuset_d_remove_dir(struct dentry *dentry)
{
	struct list_head *node;

	spin_lock(&dcache_lock);
	node = dentry->d_subdirs.next;
	while (node != &dentry->d_subdirs) {
		struct dentry *d = list_entry(node, struct dentry, d_child);
		list_del_init(node);
		if (d->d_inode) {
			d = dget_locked(d);
			spin_unlock(&dcache_lock);
			d_delete(d);
			simple_unlink(dentry->d_inode, d);
			dput(d);
			spin_lock(&dcache_lock);
		}
		node = dentry->d_subdirs.next;
	}
	list_del_init(&dentry->d_child);
	spin_unlock(&dcache_lock);
	remove_dir(dentry);
}

static struct super_operations cpuset_ops = {
	.statfs = simple_statfs,
	.drop_inode = generic_delete_inode,
};

static int cpuset_fill_super(struct super_block *sb, void *unused_data,
							int unused_silent)
{
	struct inode *inode;
	struct dentry *root;

	sb->s_blocksize = PAGE_CACHE_SIZE;
	sb->s_blocksize_bits = PAGE_CACHE_SHIFT;
	sb->s_magic = CPUSET_SUPER_MAGIC;
	sb->s_op = &cpuset_ops;
	cpuset_sb = sb;

	inode = cpuset_new_inode(S_IFDIR | S_IRUGO | S_IXUGO | S_IWUSR);
	if (inode) {
		inode->i_op = &simple_dir_inode_operations;
		inode->i_fop = &simple_dir_operations;
		/* directories start off with i_nlink == 2 (for "." entry) */
		inode->i_nlink++;
	} else {
		return -ENOMEM;
	}

	root = d_alloc_root(inode);
	if (!root) {
		iput(inode);
		return -ENOMEM;
	}
	sb->s_root = root;
	return 0;
}

static struct super_block *cpuset_get_sb(struct file_system_type *fs_type,
					int flags, const char *unused_dev_name,
					void *data)
{
	return get_sb_single(fs_type, flags, data, cpuset_fill_super);
}

static struct file_system_type cpuset_fs_type = {
	.name = "cpuset",
	.get_sb = cpuset_get_sb,
	.kill_sb = kill_litter_super,
};

/* struct cftype:
 *
 * The files in the cpuset filesystem mostly have a very simple read/write
 * handling, some common function will take care of it. Nevertheless some cases
 * (read tasks) are special and therefore I define this structure for every
 * kind of file.
 *
 *
 * When reading/writing to a file:
 *	- the cpuset to use in file->f_dentry->d_parent->d_fsdata
 *	- the 'cftype' of the file is file->f_dentry->d_fsdata
 */

struct cftype {
	char *name;
	int private;
	int (*open) (struct inode *inode, struct file *file);
	ssize_t (*read) (struct file *file, char __user *buf, size_t nbytes,
							loff_t *ppos);
	int (*write) (struct file *file, const char __user *buf, size_t nbytes,
							loff_t *ppos);
	int (*release) (struct inode *inode, struct file *file);
};

static inline struct cpuset *__d_cs(struct dentry *dentry)
{
	return dentry->d_fsdata;
}

static inline struct cftype *__d_cft(struct dentry *dentry)
{
	return dentry->d_fsdata;
}

/*
 * Call with cpuset_sem held.  Writes path of cpuset into buf.
 * Returns 0 on success, -errno on error.
 */

static int cpuset_path(const struct cpuset *cs, char *buf, int buflen)
{
	char *start;

	start = buf + buflen;

	*--start = '\0';
	for (;;) {
		int len = cs->dentry->d_name.len;
		if ((start -= len) < buf)
			return -ENAMETOOLONG;
		memcpy(start, cs->dentry->d_name.name, len);
		cs = cs->parent;
		if (!cs)
			break;
		if (!cs->parent)
			continue;
		if (--start < buf)
			return -ENAMETOOLONG;
		*start = '/';
	}
	memmove(buf, start, buf + buflen - start);
	return 0;
}

/*
 * Notify userspace when a cpuset is released, by running
 * /sbin/cpuset_release_agent with the name of the cpuset (path
 * relative to the root of cpuset file system) as the argument.
 *
 * Most likely, this user command will try to rmdir this cpuset.
 *
 * This races with the possibility that some other task will be
 * attached to this cpuset before it is removed, or that some other
 * user task will 'mkdir' a child cpuset of this cpuset.  That's ok.
 * The presumed 'rmdir' will fail quietly if this cpuset is no longer
 * unused, and this cpuset will be reprieved from its death sentence,
 * to continue to serve a useful existence.  Next time it's released,
 * we will get notified again, if it still has 'notify_on_release' set.
 *
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 * The final arg to call_usermodehelper() is 0, which means don't
 * wait.  The separate /sbin/cpuset_release_agent task is forked by
 * call_usermodehelper(), then control in this thread returns here,
 * without waiting for the release agent task.  We don't bother to
 * wait because the caller of this routine has no use for the exit
 * status of the /sbin/cpuset_release_agent task, so no sense holding
 * our caller up for that.
 *
 * The simple act of forking that task might require more memory,
 * which might need cpuset_sem.  So this routine must be called while
 * cpuset_sem is not held, to avoid a possible deadlock.  See also
 * comments for check_for_release(), below.
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 */

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static void cpuset_release_agent(const char *pathbuf)
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{
	char *argv[3], *envp[3];
	int i;

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	if (!pathbuf)
		return;

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	i = 0;
	argv[i++] = "/sbin/cpuset_release_agent";
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	argv[i++] = (char *)pathbuf;
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	argv[i] = NULL;

	i = 0;
	/* minimal command environment */
	envp[i++] = "HOME=/";
	envp[i++] = "PATH=/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin";
	envp[i] = NULL;

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	call_usermodehelper(argv[0], argv, envp, 0);
	kfree(pathbuf);
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}

/*
 * Either cs->count of using tasks transitioned to zero, or the
 * cs->children list of child cpusets just became empty.  If this
 * cs is notify_on_release() and now both the user count is zero and
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 * the list of children is empty, prepare cpuset path in a kmalloc'd
 * buffer, to be returned via ppathbuf, so that the caller can invoke
 * cpuset_release_agent() with it later on, once cpuset_sem is dropped.
 * Call here with cpuset_sem held.
 *
 * This check_for_release() routine is responsible for kmalloc'ing
 * pathbuf.  The above cpuset_release_agent() is responsible for
 * kfree'ing pathbuf.  The caller of these routines is responsible
 * for providing a pathbuf pointer, initialized to NULL, then
 * calling check_for_release() with cpuset_sem held and the address
 * of the pathbuf pointer, then dropping cpuset_sem, then calling
 * cpuset_release_agent() with pathbuf, as set by check_for_release().
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 */

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static void check_for_release(struct cpuset *cs, char **ppathbuf)
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{
	if (notify_on_release(cs) && atomic_read(&cs->count) == 0 &&
	    list_empty(&cs->children)) {
		char *buf;

		buf = kmalloc(PAGE_SIZE, GFP_KERNEL);
		if (!buf)
			return;
		if (cpuset_path(cs, buf, PAGE_SIZE) < 0)
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			kfree(buf);
		else
			*ppathbuf = buf;
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	}
}

/*
 * Return in *pmask the portion of a cpusets's cpus_allowed that
 * are online.  If none are online, walk up the cpuset hierarchy
 * until we find one that does have some online cpus.  If we get
 * all the way to the top and still haven't found any online cpus,
 * return cpu_online_map.  Or if passed a NULL cs from an exit'ing
 * task, return cpu_online_map.
 *
 * One way or another, we guarantee to return some non-empty subset
 * of cpu_online_map.
 *
 * Call with cpuset_sem held.
 */

static void guarantee_online_cpus(const struct cpuset *cs, cpumask_t *pmask)
{
	while (cs && !cpus_intersects(cs->cpus_allowed, cpu_online_map))
		cs = cs->parent;
	if (cs)
		cpus_and(*pmask, cs->cpus_allowed, cpu_online_map);
	else
		*pmask = cpu_online_map;
	BUG_ON(!cpus_intersects(*pmask, cpu_online_map));
}

/*
 * Return in *pmask the portion of a cpusets's mems_allowed that
 * are online.  If none are online, walk up the cpuset hierarchy
 * until we find one that does have some online mems.  If we get
 * all the way to the top and still haven't found any online mems,
 * return node_online_map.
 *
 * One way or another, we guarantee to return some non-empty subset
 * of node_online_map.
 *
 * Call with cpuset_sem held.
 */

static void guarantee_online_mems(const struct cpuset *cs, nodemask_t *pmask)
{
	while (cs && !nodes_intersects(cs->mems_allowed, node_online_map))
		cs = cs->parent;
	if (cs)
		nodes_and(*pmask, cs->mems_allowed, node_online_map);
	else
		*pmask = node_online_map;
	BUG_ON(!nodes_intersects(*pmask, node_online_map));
}

/*
 * Refresh current tasks mems_allowed and mems_generation from
 * current tasks cpuset.  Call with cpuset_sem held.
 *
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 * This routine is needed to update the per-task mems_allowed
 * data, within the tasks context, when it is trying to allocate
 * memory (in various mm/mempolicy.c routines) and notices
 * that some other task has been modifying its cpuset.
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 */

static void refresh_mems(void)
{
	struct cpuset *cs = current->cpuset;

	if (current->cpuset_mems_generation != cs->mems_generation) {
		guarantee_online_mems(cs, &current->mems_allowed);
		current->cpuset_mems_generation = cs->mems_generation;
	}
}

/*
 * is_cpuset_subset(p, q) - Is cpuset p a subset of cpuset q?
 *
 * One cpuset is a subset of another if all its allowed CPUs and
 * Memory Nodes are a subset of the other, and its exclusive flags
 * are only set if the other's are set.
 */

static int is_cpuset_subset(const struct cpuset *p, const struct cpuset *q)
{
	return	cpus_subset(p->cpus_allowed, q->cpus_allowed) &&
		nodes_subset(p->mems_allowed, q->mems_allowed) &&
		is_cpu_exclusive(p) <= is_cpu_exclusive(q) &&
		is_mem_exclusive(p) <= is_mem_exclusive(q);
}

/*
 * validate_change() - Used to validate that any proposed cpuset change
 *		       follows the structural rules for cpusets.
 *
 * If we replaced the flag and mask values of the current cpuset
 * (cur) with those values in the trial cpuset (trial), would
 * our various subset and exclusive rules still be valid?  Presumes
 * cpuset_sem held.
 *
 * 'cur' is the address of an actual, in-use cpuset.  Operations
 * such as list traversal that depend on the actual address of the
 * cpuset in the list must use cur below, not trial.
 *
 * 'trial' is the address of bulk structure copy of cur, with
 * perhaps one or more of the fields cpus_allowed, mems_allowed,
 * or flags changed to new, trial values.
 *
 * Return 0 if valid, -errno if not.
 */

static int validate_change(const struct cpuset *cur, const struct cpuset *trial)
{
	struct cpuset *c, *par;

	/* Each of our child cpusets must be a subset of us */
	list_for_each_entry(c, &cur->children, sibling) {
		if (!is_cpuset_subset(c, trial))
			return -EBUSY;
	}

	/* Remaining checks don't apply to root cpuset */
	if ((par = cur->parent) == NULL)
		return 0;

	/* We must be a subset of our parent cpuset */
	if (!is_cpuset_subset(trial, par))
		return -EACCES;

	/* If either I or some sibling (!= me) is exclusive, we can't overlap */
	list_for_each_entry(c, &par->children, sibling) {
		if ((is_cpu_exclusive(trial) || is_cpu_exclusive(c)) &&
		    c != cur &&
		    cpus_intersects(trial->cpus_allowed, c->cpus_allowed))
			return -EINVAL;
		if ((is_mem_exclusive(trial) || is_mem_exclusive(c)) &&
		    c != cur &&
		    nodes_intersects(trial->mems_allowed, c->mems_allowed))
			return -EINVAL;
	}

	return 0;
}

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/*
 * For a given cpuset cur, partition the system as follows
 * a. All cpus in the parent cpuset's cpus_allowed that are not part of any
 *    exclusive child cpusets
 * b. All cpus in the current cpuset's cpus_allowed that are not part of any
 *    exclusive child cpusets
 * Build these two partitions by calling partition_sched_domains
 *
 * Call with cpuset_sem held.  May nest a call to the
 * lock_cpu_hotplug()/unlock_cpu_hotplug() pair.
 */
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static void update_cpu_domains(struct cpuset *cur)
{
	struct cpuset *c, *par = cur->parent;
	cpumask_t pspan, cspan;

	if (par == NULL || cpus_empty(cur->cpus_allowed))
		return;

	/*
	 * Get all cpus from parent's cpus_allowed not part of exclusive
	 * children
	 */
	pspan = par->cpus_allowed;
	list_for_each_entry(c, &par->children, sibling) {
		if (is_cpu_exclusive(c))
			cpus_andnot(pspan, pspan, c->cpus_allowed);
	}
	if (is_removed(cur) || !is_cpu_exclusive(cur)) {
		cpus_or(pspan, pspan, cur->cpus_allowed);
		if (cpus_equal(pspan, cur->cpus_allowed))
			return;
		cspan = CPU_MASK_NONE;
	} else {
		if (cpus_empty(pspan))
			return;
		cspan = cur->cpus_allowed;
		/*
		 * Get all cpus from current cpuset's cpus_allowed not part
		 * of exclusive children
		 */
		list_for_each_entry(c, &cur->children, sibling) {
			if (is_cpu_exclusive(c))
				cpus_andnot(cspan, cspan, c->cpus_allowed);
		}
	}

	lock_cpu_hotplug();
	partition_sched_domains(&pspan, &cspan);
	unlock_cpu_hotplug();
}

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static int update_cpumask(struct cpuset *cs, char *buf)
{
	struct cpuset trialcs;
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	int retval, cpus_unchanged;
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	trialcs = *cs;
	retval = cpulist_parse(buf, trialcs.cpus_allowed);
	if (retval < 0)
		return retval;
	cpus_and(trialcs.cpus_allowed, trialcs.cpus_allowed, cpu_online_map);
	if (cpus_empty(trialcs.cpus_allowed))
		return -ENOSPC;
	retval = validate_change(cs, &trialcs);
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	if (retval < 0)
		return retval;
	cpus_unchanged = cpus_equal(cs->cpus_allowed, trialcs.cpus_allowed);
	cs->cpus_allowed = trialcs.cpus_allowed;
	if (is_cpu_exclusive(cs) && !cpus_unchanged)
		update_cpu_domains(cs);
	return 0;
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}

static int update_nodemask(struct cpuset *cs, char *buf)
{
	struct cpuset trialcs;
	int retval;

	trialcs = *cs;
	retval = nodelist_parse(buf, trialcs.mems_allowed);
	if (retval < 0)
		return retval;
	nodes_and(trialcs.mems_allowed, trialcs.mems_allowed, node_online_map);
	if (nodes_empty(trialcs.mems_allowed))
		return -ENOSPC;
	retval = validate_change(cs, &trialcs);
	if (retval == 0) {
		cs->mems_allowed = trialcs.mems_allowed;
		atomic_inc(&cpuset_mems_generation);
		cs->mems_generation = atomic_read(&cpuset_mems_generation);
	}
	return retval;
}

/*
 * update_flag - read a 0 or a 1 in a file and update associated flag
 * bit:	the bit to update (CS_CPU_EXCLUSIVE, CS_MEM_EXCLUSIVE,
 *						CS_NOTIFY_ON_RELEASE)
 * cs:	the cpuset to update
 * buf:	the buffer where we read the 0 or 1
 */

static int update_flag(cpuset_flagbits_t bit, struct cpuset *cs, char *buf)
{
	int turning_on;
	struct cpuset trialcs;
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	int err, cpu_exclusive_changed;
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	turning_on = (simple_strtoul(buf, NULL, 10) != 0);

	trialcs = *cs;
	if (turning_on)
		set_bit(bit, &trialcs.flags);
	else
		clear_bit(bit, &trialcs.flags);

	err = validate_change(cs, &trialcs);
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	if (err < 0)
		return err;
	cpu_exclusive_changed =
		(is_cpu_exclusive(cs) != is_cpu_exclusive(&trialcs));
	if (turning_on)
		set_bit(bit, &cs->flags);
	else
		clear_bit(bit, &cs->flags);

	if (cpu_exclusive_changed)
                update_cpu_domains(cs);
	return 0;
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}

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static int attach_task(struct cpuset *cs, char *pidbuf, char **ppathbuf)
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{
	pid_t pid;
	struct task_struct *tsk;
	struct cpuset *oldcs;
	cpumask_t cpus;

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	if (sscanf(pidbuf, "%d", &pid) != 1)
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		return -EIO;
	if (cpus_empty(cs->cpus_allowed) || nodes_empty(cs->mems_allowed))
		return -ENOSPC;

	if (pid) {
		read_lock(&tasklist_lock);

		tsk = find_task_by_pid(pid);
		if (!tsk) {
			read_unlock(&tasklist_lock);
			return -ESRCH;
		}

		get_task_struct(tsk);
		read_unlock(&tasklist_lock);

		if ((current->euid) && (current->euid != tsk->uid)
		    && (current->euid != tsk->suid)) {
			put_task_struct(tsk);
			return -EACCES;
		}
	} else {
		tsk = current;
		get_task_struct(tsk);
	}

	task_lock(tsk);
	oldcs = tsk->cpuset;
	if (!oldcs) {
		task_unlock(tsk);
		put_task_struct(tsk);
		return -ESRCH;
	}
	atomic_inc(&cs->count);
	tsk->cpuset = cs;
	task_unlock(tsk);

	guarantee_online_cpus(cs, &cpus);
	set_cpus_allowed(tsk, cpus);

	put_task_struct(tsk);
	if (atomic_dec_and_test(&oldcs->count))
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		check_for_release(oldcs, ppathbuf);
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	return 0;
}

/* The various types of files and directories in a cpuset file system */

typedef enum {
	FILE_ROOT,
	FILE_DIR,
	FILE_CPULIST,
	FILE_MEMLIST,
	FILE_CPU_EXCLUSIVE,
	FILE_MEM_EXCLUSIVE,
	FILE_NOTIFY_ON_RELEASE,
	FILE_TASKLIST,
} cpuset_filetype_t;

static ssize_t cpuset_common_file_write(struct file *file, const char __user *userbuf,
					size_t nbytes, loff_t *unused_ppos)
{
	struct cpuset *cs = __d_cs(file->f_dentry->d_parent);
	struct cftype *cft = __d_cft(file->f_dentry);
	cpuset_filetype_t type = cft->private;
	char *buffer;
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	char *pathbuf = NULL;
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	int retval = 0;

	/* Crude upper limit on largest legitimate cpulist user might write. */
	if (nbytes > 100 + 6 * NR_CPUS)
		return -E2BIG;

	/* +1 for nul-terminator */
	if ((buffer = kmalloc(nbytes + 1, GFP_KERNEL)) == 0)
		return -ENOMEM;

	if (copy_from_user(buffer, userbuf, nbytes)) {
		retval = -EFAULT;
		goto out1;
	}
	buffer[nbytes] = 0;	/* nul-terminate */

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	cpuset_down(&cpuset_sem);
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	if (is_removed(cs)) {
		retval = -ENODEV;
		goto out2;
	}

	switch (type) {
	case FILE_CPULIST:
		retval = update_cpumask(cs, buffer);
		break;
	case FILE_MEMLIST:
		retval = update_nodemask(cs, buffer);
		break;
	case FILE_CPU_EXCLUSIVE:
		retval = update_flag(CS_CPU_EXCLUSIVE, cs, buffer);
		break;
	case FILE_MEM_EXCLUSIVE:
		retval = update_flag(CS_MEM_EXCLUSIVE, cs, buffer);
		break;
	case FILE_NOTIFY_ON_RELEASE:
		retval = update_flag(CS_NOTIFY_ON_RELEASE, cs, buffer);
		break;
	case FILE_TASKLIST:
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		retval = attach_task(cs, buffer, &pathbuf);
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		break;
	default:
		retval = -EINVAL;
		goto out2;
	}

	if (retval == 0)
		retval = nbytes;
out2:
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	cpuset_up(&cpuset_sem);
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	cpuset_release_agent(pathbuf);
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out1:
	kfree(buffer);
	return retval;
}

static ssize_t cpuset_file_write(struct file *file, const char __user *buf,
						size_t nbytes, loff_t *ppos)
{
	ssize_t retval = 0;
	struct cftype *cft = __d_cft(file->f_dentry);
	if (!cft)
		return -ENODEV;

	/* special function ? */
	if (cft->write)
		retval = cft->write(file, buf, nbytes, ppos);
	else
		retval = cpuset_common_file_write(file, buf, nbytes, ppos);

	return retval;
}

/*
 * These ascii lists should be read in a single call, by using a user
 * buffer large enough to hold the entire map.  If read in smaller
 * chunks, there is no guarantee of atomicity.  Since the display format
 * used, list of ranges of sequential numbers, is variable length,
 * and since these maps can change value dynamically, one could read
 * gibberish by doing partial reads while a list was changing.
 * A single large read to a buffer that crosses a page boundary is
 * ok, because the result being copied to user land is not recomputed
 * across a page fault.
 */

static int cpuset_sprintf_cpulist(char *page, struct cpuset *cs)
{
	cpumask_t mask;

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	cpuset_down(&cpuset_sem);
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	mask = cs->cpus_allowed;
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	cpuset_up(&cpuset_sem);
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	return cpulist_scnprintf(page, PAGE_SIZE, mask);
}

static int cpuset_sprintf_memlist(char *page, struct cpuset *cs)
{
	nodemask_t mask;

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	cpuset_down(&cpuset_sem);
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	mask = cs->mems_allowed;
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	cpuset_up(&cpuset_sem);
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	return nodelist_scnprintf(page, PAGE_SIZE, mask);
}

static ssize_t cpuset_common_file_read(struct file *file, char __user *buf,
				size_t nbytes, loff_t *ppos)
{
	struct cftype *cft = __d_cft(file->f_dentry);
	struct cpuset *cs = __d_cs(file->f_dentry->d_parent);
	cpuset_filetype_t type = cft->private;
	char *page;
	ssize_t retval = 0;
	char *s;
	char *start;
	size_t n;

	if (!(page = (char *)__get_free_page(GFP_KERNEL)))
		return -ENOMEM;

	s = page;

	switch (type) {
	case FILE_CPULIST:
		s += cpuset_sprintf_cpulist(s, cs);
		break;
	case FILE_MEMLIST:
		s += cpuset_sprintf_memlist(s, cs);
		break;
	case FILE_CPU_EXCLUSIVE:
		*s++ = is_cpu_exclusive(cs) ? '1' : '0';
		break;
	case FILE_MEM_EXCLUSIVE:
		*s++ = is_mem_exclusive(cs) ? '1' : '0';
		break;
	case FILE_NOTIFY_ON_RELEASE:
		*s++ = notify_on_release(cs) ? '1' : '0';
		break;
	default:
		retval = -EINVAL;
		goto out;
	}
	*s++ = '\n';
	*s = '\0';