1. 24 Mar, 2006 2 commits
  2. 23 Mar, 2006 1 commit
  3. 15 Feb, 2006 1 commit
  4. 03 Feb, 2006 1 commit
  5. 15 Jan, 2006 2 commits
  6. 09 Jan, 2006 18 commits
    • Jes Sorensen's avatar
      [PATCH] mutex subsystem, semaphore to mutex: VFS, ->i_sem · 1b1dcc1b
      Jes Sorensen authored
      This patch converts the inode semaphore to a mutex. I have tested it on
      XFS and compiled as much as one can consider on an ia64. Anyway your
      luck with it might be different.
      Modified-by: default avatarIngo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
      (finished the conversion)
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJes Sorensen <jes@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarIngo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
    • Eric Dumazet's avatar
      [PATCH] shrink dentry struct · 5160ee6f
      Eric Dumazet authored
      Some long time ago, dentry struct was carefully tuned so that on 32 bits
      UP, sizeof(struct dentry) was exactly 128, ie a power of 2, and a multiple
      of memory cache lines.
      Then RCU was added and dentry struct enlarged by two pointers, with nice
      results for SMP, but not so good on UP, because breaking the above tuning
      (128 + 8 = 136 bytes)
      This patch reverts this unwanted side effect, by using an union (d_u),
      where d_rcu and d_child are placed so that these two fields can share their
      memory needs.
      At the time d_free() is called (and d_rcu is really used), d_child is known
      to be empty and not touched by the dentry freeing.
      Lockless lookups only access d_name, d_parent, d_lock, d_op, d_flags (so
      the previous content of d_child is not needed if said dentry was unhashed
      but still accessed by a CPU because of RCU constraints)
      As dentry cache easily contains millions of entries, a size reduction is
      worth the extra complexity of the ugly C union.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarEric Dumazet <dada1@cosmosbay.com>
      Cc: Dipankar Sarma <dipankar@in.ibm.com>
      Cc: Maneesh Soni <maneesh@in.ibm.com>
      Cc: Miklos Szeredi <miklos@szeredi.hu>
      Cc: "Paul E. McKenney" <paulmck@us.ibm.com>
      Cc: Ian Kent <raven@themaw.net>
      Cc: Paul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Cc: Al Viro <viro@ftp.linux.org.uk>
      Cc: Christoph Hellwig <hch@lst.de>
      Cc: Trond Myklebust <trond.myklebust@fys.uio.no>
      Cc: Neil Brown <neilb@cse.unsw.edu.au>
      Cc: James Morris <jmorris@namei.org>
      Cc: Stephen Smalley <sds@epoch.ncsc.mil>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpuset: skip rcu check if task is in root cpuset · 03a285f5
      Paul Jackson authored
      For systems that aren't using cpusets, but have them CONFIG_CPUSET enabled in
      their kernel (eventually this may be most distribution kernels), this patch
      removes even the minimal rcu_read_lock() from the memory page allocation path.
      Actually, it removes that rcu call for any task that is in the root cpuset
      (top_cpuset), which on systems not actively using cpusets, is all tasks.
      We don't need the rcu check for tasks in the top_cpuset, because the
      top_cpuset is statically allocated, so at no risk of being freed out from
      underneath us.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpuset: mark number_of_cpusets read_mostly · 7edc5962
      Paul Jackson authored
      Mark cpuset global 'number_of_cpusets' as __read_mostly.
      This global is accessed everytime a zone is considered in the zonelist loops
      beneath __alloc_pages, looking for a free memory page.  If number_of_cpusets
      is just one, then we can short circuit the mems_allowed check.
      Since this global is read alot on a hot path, and written rarely, it is an
      excellent candidate for __read_mostly.
      Thanks to Christoph Lameter for the suggestion.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpuset: use rcu directly optimization · 6b9c2603
      Paul Jackson authored
      Optimize the cpuset impact on page allocation, the most performance critical
      cpuset hook in the kernel.
      On each page allocation, the cpuset hook needs to check for a possible change
      in the current tasks cpuset.  It can now handle the common case, of no change,
      without taking any spinlock or semaphore, thanks to RCU.
      Convert a spinlock on the current task to an rcu_read_lock(), saving
      approximately a memory barrier and an atomic op, depending on architecture.
      This is done by adding rcu_assign_pointer() and synchronize_rcu() calls to the
      write side of the task->cpuset pointer, in cpuset.c:attach_task(), to delay
      freeing up a detached cpuset until after any critical sections referencing
      that pointer.
      Thanks to Andi Kleen, Nick Piggin and Eric Dumazet for ideas.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpuset: remove test for null cpuset from alloc code path · c417f024
      Paul Jackson authored
      Remove a couple of more lines of code from the cpuset hooks in the page
      allocation code path.
      There was a check for a NULL cpuset pointer in the routine
      cpuset_update_task_memory_state() that was only needed during system boot,
      after the memory subsystem was initialized, before the cpuset subsystem was
      initialized, to catch a NULL task->cpuset pointer.
      Add a cpuset_init_early() routine, just before the mem_init() call in
      init/main.c, that sets up just enough of the init tasks cpuset structure to
      render cpuset_update_task_memory_state() calls harmless.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpuset: migrate all tasks in cpuset at once · 04c19fa6
      Paul Jackson authored
      Given the mechanism in the previous patch to handle rebinding the per-vma
      mempolicies of all tasks in a cpuset that changes its memory placement, it is
      now easier to handle the page migration requirements of such tasks at the same
      The previous code didn't actually attempt to migrate the pages of the tasks in
      a cpuset whose memory placement changed until the next time each such task
      tried to allocate memory.  This was undesirable, as users invoking memory page
      migration exected to happen when the placement changed, not some unspecified
      time later when the task needed more memory.
      It is now trivial to handle the page migration at the same time as the per-vma
      rebinding is done.
      The routine cpuset.c:update_nodemask(), which handles changing a cpusets
      memory placement ('mems') now checks for the special case of being asked to
      write a placement that is the same as before.  It was harmless enough before
      to just recompute everything again, even though nothing had changed.  But page
      migration is a heavy weight operation - moving pages about.  So now it is
      worth avoiding that if asked to move a cpuset to its current location.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpuset: rebind vma mempolicies fix · 4225399a
      Paul Jackson authored
      Fix more of longstanding bug in cpuset/mempolicy interaction.
      NUMA mempolicies (mm/mempolicy.c) are constrained by the current tasks cpuset
      to just the Memory Nodes allowed by that cpuset.  The kernel maintains
      internal state for each mempolicy, tracking what nodes are used for the
      When a tasks cpuset memory placement changes, whether because the cpuset
      changed, or because the task was attached to a different cpuset, then the
      tasks mempolicies have to be rebound to the new cpuset placement, so as to
      preserve the cpuset-relative numbering of the nodes in that policy.
      An earlier fix handled such mempolicy rebinding for mempolicies attached to a
      This fix rebinds mempolicies attached to vma's (address ranges in a tasks
      address space.) Due to the need to hold the task->mm->mmap_sem semaphore while
      updating vma's, the rebinding of vma mempolicies has to be done when the
      cpuset memory placement is changed, at which time mmap_sem can be safely
      acquired.  The tasks mempolicy is rebound later, when the task next attempts
      to allocate memory and notices that its task->cpuset_mems_generation is
      out-of-date with its cpusets mems_generation.
      Because walking the tasklist to find all tasks attached to a changing cpuset
      requires holding tasklist_lock, a spinlock, one cannot update the vma's of the
      affected tasks while doing the tasklist scan.  In general, one cannot acquire
      a semaphore (which can sleep) while already holding a spinlock (such as
      tasklist_lock).  So a list of mm references has to be built up during the
      tasklist scan, then the tasklist lock dropped, then for each mm, its mmap_sem
      acquired, and the vma's in that mm rebound.
      Once the tasklist lock is dropped, affected tasks may fork new tasks, before
      their mm's are rebound.  A kernel global 'cpuset_being_rebound' is set to
      point to the cpuset being rebound (there can only be one; cpuset modifications
      are done under a global 'manage_sem' semaphore), and the mpol_copy code that
      is used to copy a tasks mempolicies during fork catches such forking tasks,
      and ensures their children are also rebound.
      When a task is moved to a different cpuset, it is easier, as there is only one
      task involved.  It's mm->vma's are scanned, using the same
      mpol_rebind_policy() as used above.
      It may happen that both the mpol_copy hook and the update done via the
      tasklist scan update the same mm twice.  This is ok, as the mempolicies of
      each vma in an mm keep track of what mems_allowed they are relative to, and
      safely no-op a second request to rebind to the same nodes.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpuset: number_of_cpusets optimization · 202f72d5
      Paul Jackson authored
      Easy little optimization hack to avoid actually having to call
      cpuset_zone_allowed() and check mems_allowed, in the main page allocation
      routine, __alloc_pages().  This saves several CPU cycles per page allocation
      on systems not using cpusets.
      A counter is updated each time a cpuset is created or removed, and whenever
      there is only one cpuset in the system, it must be the root cpuset, which
      contains all CPUs and all Memory Nodes.  In that case, when the counter is
      one, all allocations are allowed.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpuset: numa_policy_rebind cleanup · 74cb2155
      Paul Jackson authored
      Cleanup, reorganize and make more robust the mempolicy.c code to rebind
      mempolicies relative to the containing cpuset after a tasks memory placement
      The real motivator for this cleanup patch is to lay more groundwork for the
      upcoming patch to correctly rebind NUMA mempolicies that are attached to vma's
      after the containing cpuset memory placement changes.
      NUMA mempolicies are constrained by the cpuset their task is a member of.
      When either (1) a task is moved to a different cpuset, or (2) the 'mems'
      mems_allowed of a cpuset is changed, then the NUMA mempolicies have embedded
      node numbers (for MPOL_BIND, MPOL_INTERLEAVE and MPOL_PREFERRED) that need to
      be recalculated, relative to their new cpuset placement.
      The old code used an unreliable method of determining what was the old
      mems_allowed constraining the mempolicy.  It just looked at the tasks
      mems_allowed value.  This sort of worked with the present code, that just
      rebinds the -task- mempolicy, and leaves any -vma- mempolicies broken,
      referring to the old nodes.  But in an upcoming patch, the vma mempolicies
      will be rebound as well.  Then the order in which the various task and vma
      mempolicies are updated will no longer be deterministic, and one can no longer
      count on the task->mems_allowed holding the old value for as long as needed.
      It's not even clear if the current code was guaranteed to work reliably for
      task mempolicies.
      So I added a mems_allowed field to each mempolicy, stating exactly what
      mems_allowed the policy is relative to, and updated synchronously and reliably
      anytime that the mempolicy is rebound.
      Also removed a useless wrapper routine, numa_policy_rebind(), and had its
      caller, cpuset_update_task_memory_state(), call directly to the rewritten
      policy_rebind() routine, and made that rebind routine extern instead of
      static, and added a "mpol_" prefix to its name, making it
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpuset: implement cpuset_mems_allowed · 909d75a3
      Paul Jackson authored
      Provide a cpuset_mems_allowed() method, which the sys_migrate_pages() code
      needed, to obtain the mems_allowed vector of a cpuset, and replaced the
      workaround in sys_migrate_pages() to call this new method.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpuset: combine refresh_mems and update_mems · cf2a473c
      Paul Jackson authored
      The important code paths through alloc_pages_current() and alloc_page_vma(),
      by which most kernel page allocations go, both called
      cpuset_update_current_mems_allowed(), which in turn called refresh_mems().
      -Both- of these latter two routines did a tasklock, got the tasks cpuset
      pointer, and checked for out of date cpuset->mems_generation.
      That was a silly duplication of code and waste of CPU cycles on an important
      code path.
      Consolidated those two routines into a single routine, called
      cpuset_update_task_memory_state(), since it updates more than just
      Changed all callers of either routine to call the new consolidated routine.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpuset: fork hook fix · b4b26418
      Paul Jackson authored
      Fix obscure, never seen in real life, cpuset fork race.  The cpuset_fork()
      call in fork.c was setting up the correct task->cpuset pointer after the
      tasklist_lock was dropped, which briefly exposed the newly forked process with
      an unsafe (copied from parent without locks or usage counter increment) cpuset
      In theory, that exposed cpuset pointer could have been pointing at a cpuset
      that was already freed and removed, and in theory another task that had been
      sitting on the tasklist_lock waiting to scan the task list could have raced
      down the entire tasklist, found our new child at the far end, and dereferenced
      that bogus cpuset pointer.
      To fix, setup up the correct cpuset pointer in the new child by calling
      cpuset_fork() before the new task is linked into the tasklist, and with that,
      add a fork failure case, to dereference that cpuset, if the fork fails along
      the way, after cpuset_fork() was called.
      Had to remove a BUG_ON() from cpuset_exit(), because it was no longer valid -
      the call to cpuset_exit() from a failed fork would not have PF_EXITING set.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpuset: update_nodemask code reformat · 59dac16f
      Paul Jackson authored
      Restructure code layout of the kernel/cpuset.c update_nodemask() routine,
      removing embedded returns and nested if's in favor of goto completion labels.
      This is being done in anticipation of adding more logic to this routine, which
      will favor the goto style structure.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpuset: minor spacing initializer fixes · c5b2aff8
      Paul Jackson authored
      Four trivial cpuset fixes: remove extra spaces, remove useless initializers,
      mark one __read_mostly.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpuset: memory pressure meter · 3e0d98b9
      Paul Jackson authored
      Provide a simple per-cpuset metric of memory pressure, tracking the -rate-
      that the tasks in a cpuset call try_to_free_pages(), the synchronous
      (direct) memory reclaim code.
      This enables batch managers monitoring jobs running in dedicated cpusets to
      efficiently detect what level of memory pressure that job is causing.
      This is useful both on tightly managed systems running a wide mix of
      submitted jobs, which may choose to terminate or reprioritize jobs that are
      trying to use more memory than allowed on the nodes assigned them, and with
      tightly coupled, long running, massively parallel scientific computing jobs
      that will dramatically fail to meet required performance goals if they
      start to use more memory than allowed to them.
      This patch just provides a very economical way for the batch manager to
      monitor a cpuset for signs of memory pressure.  It's up to the batch
      manager or other user code to decide what to do about it and take action.
      ==> Unless this feature is enabled by writing "1" to the special file
          /dev/cpuset/memory_pressure_enabled, the hook in the rebalance
          code of __alloc_pages() for this metric reduces to simply noticing
          that the cpuset_memory_pressure_enabled flag is zero.  So only
          systems that enable this feature will compute the metric.
      Why a per-cpuset, running average:
          Because this meter is per-cpuset, rather than per-task or mm, the
          system load imposed by a batch scheduler monitoring this metric is
          sharply reduced on large systems, because a scan of the tasklist can be
          avoided on each set of queries.
          Because this meter is a running average, instead of an accumulating
          counter, a batch scheduler can detect memory pressure with a single
          read, instead of having to read and accumulate results for a period of
          Because this meter is per-cpuset rather than per-task or mm, the
          batch scheduler can obtain the key information, memory pressure in a
          cpuset, with a single read, rather than having to query and accumulate
          results over all the (dynamically changing) set of tasks in the cpuset.
      A per-cpuset simple digital filter (requires a spinlock and 3 words of data
      per-cpuset) is kept, and updated by any task attached to that cpuset, if it
      enters the synchronous (direct) page reclaim code.
      A per-cpuset file provides an integer number representing the recent
      (half-life of 10 seconds) rate of direct page reclaims caused by the tasks
      in the cpuset, in units of reclaims attempted per second, times 1000.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpuset: mempolicy one more nodemask conversion · 5966514d
      Paul Jackson authored
      Finish converting mm/mempolicy.c from bitmaps to nodemasks.  The previous
      conversion had left one routine using bitmaps, since it involved a
      corresponding change to kernel/cpuset.c
      Fix that interface by replacing with a simple macro that calls nodes_subset(),
      or if !CONFIG_CPUSET, returns (1).
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Cc: Christoph Lameter <christoph@lameter.com>
      Cc: Andi Kleen <ak@muc.de>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpusets: swap migration interface · 45b07ef3
      Paul Jackson authored
      Add a boolean "memory_migrate" to each cpuset, represented by a file
      containing "0" or "1" in each directory below /dev/cpuset.
      It defaults to false (file contains "0").  It can be set true by writing
      "1" to the file.
      If true, then anytime that a task is attached to the cpuset so marked, the
      pages of that task will be moved to that cpuset, preserving, to the extent
      practical, the cpuset-relative placement of the pages.
      Also anytime that a cpuset so marked has its memory placement changed (by
      writing to its "mems" file), the tasks in that cpuset will have their pages
      moved to the cpusets new nodes, preserving, to the extent practical, the
      cpuset-relative placement of the moved pages.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Cc: Christoph Lameter <christoph@lameter.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
  7. 14 Nov, 2005 1 commit
  8. 31 Oct, 2005 5 commits
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpusets: automatic numa mempolicy rebinding · 68860ec1
      Paul Jackson authored
      This patch automatically updates a tasks NUMA mempolicy when its cpuset
      memory placement changes.  It does so within the context of the task,
      without any need to support low level external mempolicy manipulation.
      If a system is not using cpusets, or if running on a system with just the
      root (all-encompassing) cpuset, then this remap is a no-op.  Only when a
      task is moved between cpusets, or a cpusets memory placement is changed
      does the following apply.  Otherwise, the main routine below,
      rebind_policy() is not even called.
      When mixing cpusets, scheduler affinity, and NUMA mempolicies, the
      essential role of cpusets is to place jobs (several related tasks) on a set
      of CPUs and Memory Nodes, the essential role of sched_setaffinity is to
      manage a jobs processor placement within its allowed cpuset, and the
      essential role of NUMA mempolicy (mbind, set_mempolicy) is to manage a jobs
      memory placement within its allowed cpuset.
      However, CPU affinity and NUMA memory placement are managed within the
      kernel using absolute system wide numbering, not cpuset relative numbering.
      This is ok until a job is migrated to a different cpuset, or what's the
      same, a jobs cpuset is moved to different CPUs and Memory Nodes.
      Then the CPU affinity and NUMA memory placement of the tasks in the job
      need to be updated, to preserve their cpuset-relative position.  This can
      be done for CPU affinity using sched_setaffinity() from user code, as one
      task can modify anothers CPU affinity.  This cannot be done from an
      external task for NUMA memory placement, as that can only be modified in
      the context of the task using it.
      However, it easy enough to remap a tasks NUMA mempolicy automatically when
      a task is migrated, using the existing cpuset mechanism to trigger a
      refresh of a tasks memory placement after its cpuset has changed.  All that
      is needed is the old and new nodemask, and notice to the task that it needs
      to rebind its mempolicy.  The tasks mems_allowed has the old mask, the
      tasks cpuset has the new mask, and the existing
      cpuset_update_current_mems_allowed() mechanism provides the notice.  The
      bitmap/cpumask/nodemask remap operators provide the cpuset relative
      This patch leaves open a couple of issues:
       1) Updating vma and shmfs/tmpfs/hugetlbfs memory policies:
          These mempolicies may reference nodes outside of those allowed to
          the current task by its cpuset.  Tasks are migrated as part of jobs,
          which reside on what might be several cpusets in a subtree.  When such
          a job is migrated, all NUMA memory policy references to nodes within
          that cpuset subtree should be translated, and references to any nodes
          outside that subtree should be left untouched.  A future patch will
          provide the cpuset mechanism needed to mark such subtrees.  With that
          patch, we will be able to correctly migrate these other memory policies
          across a job migration.
       2) Updating cpuset, affinity and memory policies in user space:
          This is harder.  Any placement state stored in user space using
          system-wide numbering will be invalidated across a migration.  More
          work will be required to provide user code with a migration-safe means
          to manage its cpuset relative placement, while preserving the current
          API's that pass system wide numbers, not cpuset relative numbers across
          the kernel-user boundary.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpusets: simple rename · 18a19cb3
      Paul Jackson authored
      Add support for renaming cpusets.  Only allow simple rename of cpuset
      directories in place.  Don't allow moving cpusets elsewhere in hierarchy or
      renaming the special cpuset files in each cpuset directory.
      The usefulness of this simple rename became apparent when developing task
      migration facilities.  It allows building a second cpuset hierarchy using
      new names and containing new CPUs and Memory Nodes, moving tasks from the
      old to the new cpusets, removing the old cpusets, and then renaming the new
      cpusets to be just like the old names, so that any knowledge that the tasks
      had of their cpuset names will still be valid.
      Leaf node cpusets can be migrated to other CPUs or Memory Nodes by just
      updating their 'cpus' and 'mems' files, but because no cpuset can contain
      CPUs or Nodes not in its parent cpuset, one cannot do this in a cpuset
      hierarchy without first expanding all the non-leaf cpusets to contain the
      union of both the old and new CPUs and Nodes, which would obfuscate the
      one-to-one migration of a task from one cpuset to another required to
      correctly migrate the physical page frames currently allocated to that
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpusets: dual semaphore locking overhaul · 053199ed
      Paul Jackson authored
      Overhaul cpuset locking.  Replace single semaphore with two semaphores.
      The suggestion to use two locks was made by Roman Zippel.
      Both locks are global.  Code that wants to modify cpusets must first
      acquire the exclusive manage_sem, which allows them read-only access to
      cpusets, and holds off other would-be modifiers.  Before making actual
      changes, the second semaphore, callback_sem must be acquired as well.  Code
      that needs only to query cpusets must acquire callback_sem, which is also a
      global exclusive lock.
      The earlier problems with double tripping are avoided, because it is
      allowed for holders of manage_sem to nest the second callback_sem lock, and
      only callback_sem is needed by code called from within __alloc_pages(),
      where the double tripping had been possible.
      This is not quite the same as a normal read/write semaphore, because
      obtaining read-only access with intent to change must hold off other such
      attempts, while allowing read-only access w/o such intention.  Changing
      cpusets involves several related checks and changes, which must be done
      while allowing read-only queries (to avoid the double trip), but while
      ensuring nothing changes (holding off other would be modifiers.)
      This overhaul of cpuset locking also makes careful use of task_lock() to
      guard access to the task->cpuset pointer, closing a couple of race
      conditions noticed while reading this code (thanks, Roman).  I've never
      seen these races fail in any use or test.
      See further the comments in the code.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpusets: remove depth counted locking hack · 5aa15b5f
      Paul Jackson authored
      Remove a rather hackish depth counter on cpuset locking.  The depth counter
      was avoiding a possible double trip on the global cpuset_sem semaphore.  It
      worked, but now an improved version of cpuset locking is available, to come
      in the next patch, using two global semaphores.
      This patch reverses "cpuset semaphore depth check deadlock fix"
      The kernel still works, even after this patch, except for some rare and
      difficult to reproduce race conditions when agressively creating and
      destroying cpusets marked with the notify_on_release option, on very large
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpuset cleanup · f35f31d7
      Paul Jackson authored
      Remove one more useless line from cpuset_common_file_read().
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
  9. 08 Oct, 2005 1 commit
  10. 30 Sep, 2005 1 commit
  11. 28 Sep, 2005 1 commit
  12. 12 Sep, 2005 1 commit
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpuset semaphore depth check optimize · b3426599
      Paul Jackson authored
      Optimize the deadlock avoidance check on the global cpuset
      semaphore cpuset_sem.  Instead of adding a depth counter to the
      task struct of each task, rather just two words are enough, one
      to store the depth and the other the current cpuset_sem holder.
      Thanks to Nikita Danilov for the idea.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      [ We may want to change this further, but at least it's now
        a totally internal decision to the cpusets code ]
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
  13. 10 Sep, 2005 1 commit
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpuset semaphore depth check deadlock fix · 4247bdc6
      Paul Jackson authored
      The cpusets-formalize-intermediate-gfp_kernel-containment patch
      has a deadlock problem.
      This patch was part of a set of four patches to make more
      extensive use of the cpuset 'mem_exclusive' attribute to
      manage kernel GFP_KERNEL memory allocations and to constrain
      the out-of-memory (oom) killer.
      A task that is changing cpusets in particular ways on a system
      when it is very short of free memory could double trip over
      the global cpuset_sem semaphore (get the lock and then deadlock
      trying to get it again).
      The second attempt to get cpuset_sem would be in the routine
      cpuset_zone_allowed().  This was discovered by code inspection.
      I can not reproduce the problem except with an artifically
      hacked kernel and a specialized stress test.
      In real life you cannot hit this unless you are manipulating
      cpusets, and are very unlikely to hit it unless you are rapidly
      modifying cpusets on a memory tight system.  Even then it would
      be a rare occurence.
      If you did hit it, the task double tripping over cpuset_sem
      would deadlock in the kernel, and any other task also trying
      to manipulate cpusets would deadlock there too, on cpuset_sem.
      Your batch manager would be wedged solid (if it was cpuset
      savvy), but classic Unix shells and utilities would work well
      enough to reboot the system.
      The unusual condition that led to this bug is that unlike most
      semaphores, cpuset_sem _can_ be acquired while in the page
      allocation code, when __alloc_pages() calls cpuset_zone_allowed.
      So it easy to mistakenly perform the following sequence:
        1) task makes system call to alter a cpuset
        2) take cpuset_sem
        3) try to allocate memory
        4) memory allocator, via cpuset_zone_allowed, trys to take cpuset_sem
        5) deadlock
      The reason that this is not a serious bug for most users
      is that almost all calls to allocate memory don't require
      taking cpuset_sem.  Only some code paths off the beaten
      track require taking cpuset_sem -- which is good.  Taking
      a global semaphore on the main code path for allocating
      memory would not scale well.
      This patch fixes this deadlock by wrapping the up() and down()
      calls on cpuset_sem in kernel/cpuset.c with code that tracks
      the nesting depth of the current task on that semaphore, and
      only does the real down() if the task doesn't hold the lock
      already, and only does the real up() if the nesting depth
      (number of unmatched downs) is exactly one.
      The previous required use of refresh_mems(), anytime that
      the cpuset_sem semaphore was acquired and the code executed
      while holding that semaphore might try to allocate memory, is
      no longer required.  Two refresh_mems() calls were removed
      thanks to this.  This is a good change, as failing to get
      all the necessary refresh_mems() calls placed was a primary
      source of bugs in this cpuset code.  The only remaining call
      to refresh_mems() is made while doing a memory allocation,
      if certain task memory placement data needs to be updated
      from its cpuset, due to the cpuset having been changed behind
      the tasks back.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
  14. 09 Sep, 2005 1 commit
  15. 07 Sep, 2005 3 commits
    • John Hawkes's avatar
      [PATCH] cpusets: re-enable "dynamic sched domains" · 0811bab2
      John Hawkes authored
      Revert the hack introduced last week.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarJohn Hawkes <hawkes@sgi.com>
      Cc: Ingo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpusets: confine oom_killer to mem_exclusive cpuset · ef08e3b4
      Paul Jackson authored
      Now the real motivation for this cpuset mem_exclusive patch series seems
      This patch keeps a task in or under one mem_exclusive cpuset from provoking an
      oom kill of a task under a non-overlapping mem_exclusive cpuset.  Since only
      interrupt and GFP_ATOMIC allocations are allowed to escape mem_exclusive
      containment, there is little to gain from oom killing a task under a
      non-overlapping mem_exclusive cpuset, as almost all kernel and user memory
      allocation must come from disjoint memory nodes.
      This patch enables configuring a system so that a runaway job under one
      mem_exclusive cpuset cannot cause the killing of a job in another such cpuset
      that might be using very high compute and memory resources for a prolonged
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>
    • Paul Jackson's avatar
      [PATCH] cpusets: formalize intermediate GFP_KERNEL containment · 9bf2229f
      Paul Jackson authored
      This patch makes use of the previously underutilized cpuset flag
      'mem_exclusive' to provide what amounts to another layer of memory placement
      resolution.  With this patch, there are now the following four layers of
      memory placement available:
       1) The whole system (interrupt and GFP_ATOMIC allocations can use this),
       2) The nearest enclosing mem_exclusive cpuset (GFP_KERNEL allocations can use),
       3) The current tasks cpuset (GFP_USER allocations constrained to here), and
       4) Specific node placement, using mbind and set_mempolicy.
      These nest - each layer is a subset (same or within) of the previous.
      Layer (2) above is new, with this patch.  The call used to check whether a
      zone (its node, actually) is in a cpuset (in its mems_allowed, actually) is
      extended to take a gfp_mask argument, and its logic is extended, in the case
      that __GFP_HARDWALL is not set in the flag bits, to look up the cpuset
      hierarchy for the nearest enclosing mem_exclusive cpuset, to determine if
      placement is allowed.  The definition of GFP_USER, which used to be identical
      to GFP_KERNEL, is changed to also set the __GFP_HARDWALL bit, in the previous
      cpuset_gfp_hardwall_flag patch.
      GFP_ATOMIC and GFP_KERNEL allocations will stay within the current tasks
      cpuset, so long as any node therein is not too tight on memory, but will
      escape to the larger layer, if need be.
      The intended use is to allow something like a batch manager to handle several
      jobs, each job in its own cpuset, but using common kernel memory for caches
      and such.  Swapper and oom_kill activity is also constrained to Layer (2).  A
      task in or below one mem_exclusive cpuset should not cause swapping on nodes
      in another non-overlapping mem_exclusive cpuset, nor provoke oom_killing of a
      task in another such cpuset.  Heavy use of kernel memory for i/o caching and
      such by one job should not impact the memory available to jobs in other
      non-overlapping mem_exclusive cpusets.
      This patch enables providing hardwall, inescapable cpusets for memory
      allocations of each job, while sharing kernel memory allocations between
      several jobs, in an enclosing mem_exclusive cpuset.
      Like Dinakar's patch earlier to enable administering sched domains using the
      cpu_exclusive flag, this patch also provides a useful meaning to a cpuset flag
      that had previously done nothing much useful other than restrict what cpuset
      configurations were allowed.
      Signed-off-by: default avatarPaul Jackson <pj@sgi.com>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarAndrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>
      Signed-off-by: default avatarLinus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>