printk.c 79.4 KB
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/*
 *  linux/kernel/printk.c
 *
 *  Copyright (C) 1991, 1992  Linus Torvalds
 *
 * Modified to make sys_syslog() more flexible: added commands to
 * return the last 4k of kernel messages, regardless of whether
 * they've been read or not.  Added option to suppress kernel printk's
 * to the console.  Added hook for sending the console messages
 * elsewhere, in preparation for a serial line console (someday).
 * Ted Ts'o, 2/11/93.
 * Modified for sysctl support, 1/8/97, Chris Horn.
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 * Fixed SMP synchronization, 08/08/99, Manfred Spraul
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 *     manfred@colorfullife.com
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 * Rewrote bits to get rid of console_lock
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 *	01Mar01 Andrew Morton
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 */

#include <linux/kernel.h>
#include <linux/mm.h>
#include <linux/tty.h>
#include <linux/tty_driver.h>
#include <linux/console.h>
#include <linux/init.h>
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#include <linux/jiffies.h>
#include <linux/nmi.h>
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#include <linux/module.h>
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#include <linux/moduleparam.h>
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#include <linux/delay.h>
#include <linux/smp.h>
#include <linux/security.h>
#include <linux/bootmem.h>
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#include <linux/memblock.h>
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#include <linux/syscalls.h>
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#include <linux/crash_core.h>
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#include <linux/kdb.h>
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#include <linux/ratelimit.h>
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#include <linux/kmsg_dump.h>
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#include <linux/syslog.h>
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#include <linux/cpu.h>
#include <linux/notifier.h>
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#include <linux/rculist.h>
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#include <linux/poll.h>
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#include <linux/irq_work.h>
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#include <linux/utsname.h>
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#include <linux/ctype.h>
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#include <linux/uio.h>
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#include <linux/sched/clock.h>
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#include <linux/sched/debug.h>
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#include <linux/sched/task_stack.h>
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#include <linux/uaccess.h>
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#include <asm/sections.h>
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#define CREATE_TRACE_POINTS
#include <trace/events/printk.h>

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#include "console_cmdline.h"
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#include "braille.h"
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#include "internal.h"
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int console_printk[4] = {
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	CONSOLE_LOGLEVEL_DEFAULT,	/* console_loglevel */
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	MESSAGE_LOGLEVEL_DEFAULT,	/* default_message_loglevel */
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	CONSOLE_LOGLEVEL_MIN,		/* minimum_console_loglevel */
	CONSOLE_LOGLEVEL_DEFAULT,	/* default_console_loglevel */
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};

/*
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 * Low level drivers may need that to know if they can schedule in
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 * their unblank() callback or not. So let's export it.
 */
int oops_in_progress;
EXPORT_SYMBOL(oops_in_progress);

/*
 * console_sem protects the console_drivers list, and also
 * provides serialisation for access to the entire console
 * driver system.
 */
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static DEFINE_SEMAPHORE(console_sem);
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struct console *console_drivers;
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EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(console_drivers);

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#ifdef CONFIG_LOCKDEP
static struct lockdep_map console_lock_dep_map = {
	.name = "console_lock"
};
#endif

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enum devkmsg_log_bits {
	__DEVKMSG_LOG_BIT_ON = 0,
	__DEVKMSG_LOG_BIT_OFF,
	__DEVKMSG_LOG_BIT_LOCK,
};

enum devkmsg_log_masks {
	DEVKMSG_LOG_MASK_ON             = BIT(__DEVKMSG_LOG_BIT_ON),
	DEVKMSG_LOG_MASK_OFF            = BIT(__DEVKMSG_LOG_BIT_OFF),
	DEVKMSG_LOG_MASK_LOCK           = BIT(__DEVKMSG_LOG_BIT_LOCK),
};

/* Keep both the 'on' and 'off' bits clear, i.e. ratelimit by default: */
#define DEVKMSG_LOG_MASK_DEFAULT	0

static unsigned int __read_mostly devkmsg_log = DEVKMSG_LOG_MASK_DEFAULT;

static int __control_devkmsg(char *str)
{
	if (!str)
		return -EINVAL;

	if (!strncmp(str, "on", 2)) {
		devkmsg_log = DEVKMSG_LOG_MASK_ON;
		return 2;
	} else if (!strncmp(str, "off", 3)) {
		devkmsg_log = DEVKMSG_LOG_MASK_OFF;
		return 3;
	} else if (!strncmp(str, "ratelimit", 9)) {
		devkmsg_log = DEVKMSG_LOG_MASK_DEFAULT;
		return 9;
	}
	return -EINVAL;
}

static int __init control_devkmsg(char *str)
{
	if (__control_devkmsg(str) < 0)
		return 1;

	/*
	 * Set sysctl string accordingly:
	 */
	if (devkmsg_log == DEVKMSG_LOG_MASK_ON) {
		memset(devkmsg_log_str, 0, DEVKMSG_STR_MAX_SIZE);
		strncpy(devkmsg_log_str, "on", 2);
	} else if (devkmsg_log == DEVKMSG_LOG_MASK_OFF) {
		memset(devkmsg_log_str, 0, DEVKMSG_STR_MAX_SIZE);
		strncpy(devkmsg_log_str, "off", 3);
	}
	/* else "ratelimit" which is set by default. */

	/*
	 * Sysctl cannot change it anymore. The kernel command line setting of
	 * this parameter is to force the setting to be permanent throughout the
	 * runtime of the system. This is a precation measure against userspace
	 * trying to be a smarta** and attempting to change it up on us.
	 */
	devkmsg_log |= DEVKMSG_LOG_MASK_LOCK;

	return 0;
}
__setup("printk.devkmsg=", control_devkmsg);

char devkmsg_log_str[DEVKMSG_STR_MAX_SIZE] = "ratelimit";

int devkmsg_sysctl_set_loglvl(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
			      void __user *buffer, size_t *lenp, loff_t *ppos)
{
	char old_str[DEVKMSG_STR_MAX_SIZE];
	unsigned int old;
	int err;

	if (write) {
		if (devkmsg_log & DEVKMSG_LOG_MASK_LOCK)
			return -EINVAL;

		old = devkmsg_log;
		strncpy(old_str, devkmsg_log_str, DEVKMSG_STR_MAX_SIZE);
	}

	err = proc_dostring(table, write, buffer, lenp, ppos);
	if (err)
		return err;

	if (write) {
		err = __control_devkmsg(devkmsg_log_str);

		/*
		 * Do not accept an unknown string OR a known string with
		 * trailing crap...
		 */
		if (err < 0 || (err + 1 != *lenp)) {

			/* ... and restore old setting. */
			devkmsg_log = old;
			strncpy(devkmsg_log_str, old_str, DEVKMSG_STR_MAX_SIZE);

			return -EINVAL;
		}
	}

	return 0;
}

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/*
 * Number of registered extended console drivers.
 *
 * If extended consoles are present, in-kernel cont reassembly is disabled
 * and each fragment is stored as a separate log entry with proper
 * continuation flag so that every emitted message has full metadata.  This
 * doesn't change the result for regular consoles or /proc/kmsg.  For
 * /dev/kmsg, as long as the reader concatenates messages according to
 * consecutive continuation flags, the end result should be the same too.
 */
static int nr_ext_console_drivers;

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/*
 * Helper macros to handle lockdep when locking/unlocking console_sem. We use
 * macros instead of functions so that _RET_IP_ contains useful information.
 */
#define down_console_sem() do { \
	down(&console_sem);\
	mutex_acquire(&console_lock_dep_map, 0, 0, _RET_IP_);\
} while (0)

static int __down_trylock_console_sem(unsigned long ip)
{
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	int lock_failed;
	unsigned long flags;

	/*
	 * Here and in __up_console_sem() we need to be in safe mode,
	 * because spindump/WARN/etc from under console ->lock will
	 * deadlock in printk()->down_trylock_console_sem() otherwise.
	 */
	printk_safe_enter_irqsave(flags);
	lock_failed = down_trylock(&console_sem);
	printk_safe_exit_irqrestore(flags);

	if (lock_failed)
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		return 1;
	mutex_acquire(&console_lock_dep_map, 0, 1, ip);
	return 0;
}
#define down_trylock_console_sem() __down_trylock_console_sem(_RET_IP_)

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static void __up_console_sem(unsigned long ip)
{
	unsigned long flags;

	mutex_release(&console_lock_dep_map, 1, ip);

	printk_safe_enter_irqsave(flags);
	up(&console_sem);
	printk_safe_exit_irqrestore(flags);
}
#define up_console_sem() __up_console_sem(_RET_IP_)
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/*
 * This is used for debugging the mess that is the VT code by
 * keeping track if we have the console semaphore held. It's
 * definitely not the perfect debug tool (we don't know if _WE_
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 * hold it and are racing, but it helps tracking those weird code
 * paths in the console code where we end up in places I want
 * locked without the console sempahore held).
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 */
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static int console_locked, console_suspended;
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/*
 * If exclusive_console is non-NULL then only this console is to be printed to.
 */
static struct console *exclusive_console;

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/*
 *	Array of consoles built from command line options (console=)
 */

#define MAX_CMDLINECONSOLES 8

static struct console_cmdline console_cmdline[MAX_CMDLINECONSOLES];
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static int preferred_console = -1;
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int console_set_on_cmdline;
EXPORT_SYMBOL(console_set_on_cmdline);
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/* Flag: console code may call schedule() */
static int console_may_schedule;

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/*
 * The printk log buffer consists of a chain of concatenated variable
 * length records. Every record starts with a record header, containing
 * the overall length of the record.
 *
 * The heads to the first and last entry in the buffer, as well as the
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 * sequence numbers of these entries are maintained when messages are
 * stored.
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 *
 * If the heads indicate available messages, the length in the header
 * tells the start next message. A length == 0 for the next message
 * indicates a wrap-around to the beginning of the buffer.
 *
 * Every record carries the monotonic timestamp in microseconds, as well as
 * the standard userspace syslog level and syslog facility. The usual
 * kernel messages use LOG_KERN; userspace-injected messages always carry
 * a matching syslog facility, by default LOG_USER. The origin of every
 * message can be reliably determined that way.
 *
 * The human readable log message directly follows the message header. The
 * length of the message text is stored in the header, the stored message
 * is not terminated.
 *
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 * Optionally, a message can carry a dictionary of properties (key/value pairs),
 * to provide userspace with a machine-readable message context.
 *
 * Examples for well-defined, commonly used property names are:
 *   DEVICE=b12:8               device identifier
 *                                b12:8         block dev_t
 *                                c127:3        char dev_t
 *                                n8            netdev ifindex
 *                                +sound:card0  subsystem:devname
 *   SUBSYSTEM=pci              driver-core subsystem name
 *
 * Valid characters in property names are [a-zA-Z0-9.-_]. The plain text value
 * follows directly after a '=' character. Every property is terminated by
 * a '\0' character. The last property is not terminated.
 *
 * Example of a message structure:
 *   0000  ff 8f 00 00 00 00 00 00      monotonic time in nsec
 *   0008  34 00                        record is 52 bytes long
 *   000a        0b 00                  text is 11 bytes long
 *   000c              1f 00            dictionary is 23 bytes long
 *   000e                    03 00      LOG_KERN (facility) LOG_ERR (level)
 *   0010  69 74 27 73 20 61 20 6c      "it's a l"
 *         69 6e 65                     "ine"
 *   001b           44 45 56 49 43      "DEVIC"
 *         45 3d 62 38 3a 32 00 44      "E=b8:2\0D"
 *         52 49 56 45 52 3d 62 75      "RIVER=bu"
 *         67                           "g"
 *   0032     00 00 00                  padding to next message header
 *
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 * The 'struct printk_log' buffer header must never be directly exported to
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 * userspace, it is a kernel-private implementation detail that might
 * need to be changed in the future, when the requirements change.
 *
 * /dev/kmsg exports the structured data in the following line format:
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 *   "<level>,<sequnum>,<timestamp>,<contflag>[,additional_values, ... ];<message text>\n"
 *
 * Users of the export format should ignore possible additional values
 * separated by ',', and find the message after the ';' character.
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 *
 * The optional key/value pairs are attached as continuation lines starting
 * with a space character and terminated by a newline. All possible
 * non-prinatable characters are escaped in the "\xff" notation.
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 */

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enum log_flags {
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	LOG_NOCONS	= 1,	/* already flushed, do not print to console */
	LOG_NEWLINE	= 2,	/* text ended with a newline */
	LOG_PREFIX	= 4,	/* text started with a prefix */
	LOG_CONT	= 8,	/* text is a fragment of a continuation line */
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};

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struct printk_log {
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	u64 ts_nsec;		/* timestamp in nanoseconds */
	u16 len;		/* length of entire record */
	u16 text_len;		/* length of text buffer */
	u16 dict_len;		/* length of dictionary buffer */
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	u8 facility;		/* syslog facility */
	u8 flags:5;		/* internal record flags */
	u8 level:3;		/* syslog level */
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}
#ifdef CONFIG_HAVE_EFFICIENT_UNALIGNED_ACCESS
__packed __aligned(4)
#endif
;
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/*
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 * The logbuf_lock protects kmsg buffer, indices, counters.  This can be taken
 * within the scheduler's rq lock. It must be released before calling
 * console_unlock() or anything else that might wake up a process.
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 */
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DEFINE_RAW_SPINLOCK(logbuf_lock);
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/*
 * Helper macros to lock/unlock logbuf_lock and switch between
 * printk-safe/unsafe modes.
 */
#define logbuf_lock_irq()				\
	do {						\
		printk_safe_enter_irq();		\
		raw_spin_lock(&logbuf_lock);		\
	} while (0)

#define logbuf_unlock_irq()				\
	do {						\
		raw_spin_unlock(&logbuf_lock);		\
		printk_safe_exit_irq();			\
	} while (0)

#define logbuf_lock_irqsave(flags)			\
	do {						\
		printk_safe_enter_irqsave(flags);	\
		raw_spin_lock(&logbuf_lock);		\
	} while (0)

#define logbuf_unlock_irqrestore(flags)		\
	do {						\
		raw_spin_unlock(&logbuf_lock);		\
		printk_safe_exit_irqrestore(flags);	\
	} while (0)

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#ifdef CONFIG_PRINTK
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DECLARE_WAIT_QUEUE_HEAD(log_wait);
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/* the next printk record to read by syslog(READ) or /proc/kmsg */
static u64 syslog_seq;
static u32 syslog_idx;
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static size_t syslog_partial;
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/* index and sequence number of the first record stored in the buffer */
static u64 log_first_seq;
static u32 log_first_idx;

/* index and sequence number of the next record to store in the buffer */
static u64 log_next_seq;
static u32 log_next_idx;

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/* the next printk record to write to the console */
static u64 console_seq;
static u32 console_idx;

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/* the next printk record to read after the last 'clear' command */
static u64 clear_seq;
static u32 clear_idx;

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#define PREFIX_MAX		32
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#define LOG_LINE_MAX		(1024 - PREFIX_MAX)
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#define LOG_LEVEL(v)		((v) & 0x07)
#define LOG_FACILITY(v)		((v) >> 3 & 0xff)

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/* record buffer */
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#define LOG_ALIGN __alignof__(struct printk_log)
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#define __LOG_BUF_LEN (1 << CONFIG_LOG_BUF_SHIFT)
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static char __log_buf[__LOG_BUF_LEN] __aligned(LOG_ALIGN);
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static char *log_buf = __log_buf;
static u32 log_buf_len = __LOG_BUF_LEN;

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/* Return log buffer address */
char *log_buf_addr_get(void)
{
	return log_buf;
}

/* Return log buffer size */
u32 log_buf_len_get(void)
{
	return log_buf_len;
}

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/* human readable text of the record */
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static char *log_text(const struct printk_log *msg)
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{
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	return (char *)msg + sizeof(struct printk_log);
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}

/* optional key/value pair dictionary attached to the record */
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static char *log_dict(const struct printk_log *msg)
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{
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	return (char *)msg + sizeof(struct printk_log) + msg->text_len;
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}

/* get record by index; idx must point to valid msg */
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static struct printk_log *log_from_idx(u32 idx)
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{
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	struct printk_log *msg = (struct printk_log *)(log_buf + idx);
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	/*
	 * A length == 0 record is the end of buffer marker. Wrap around and
	 * read the message at the start of the buffer.
	 */
	if (!msg->len)
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		return (struct printk_log *)log_buf;
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	return msg;
}

/* get next record; idx must point to valid msg */
static u32 log_next(u32 idx)
{
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	struct printk_log *msg = (struct printk_log *)(log_buf + idx);
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	/* length == 0 indicates the end of the buffer; wrap */
	/*
	 * A length == 0 record is the end of buffer marker. Wrap around and
	 * read the message at the start of the buffer as *this* one, and
	 * return the one after that.
	 */
	if (!msg->len) {
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		msg = (struct printk_log *)log_buf;
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		return msg->len;
	}
	return idx + msg->len;
}

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/*
 * Check whether there is enough free space for the given message.
 *
 * The same values of first_idx and next_idx mean that the buffer
 * is either empty or full.
 *
 * If the buffer is empty, we must respect the position of the indexes.
 * They cannot be reset to the beginning of the buffer.
 */
static int logbuf_has_space(u32 msg_size, bool empty)
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{
	u32 free;

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	if (log_next_idx > log_first_idx || empty)
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		free = max(log_buf_len - log_next_idx, log_first_idx);
	else
		free = log_first_idx - log_next_idx;

	/*
	 * We need space also for an empty header that signalizes wrapping
	 * of the buffer.
	 */
	return free >= msg_size + sizeof(struct printk_log);
}

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static int log_make_free_space(u32 msg_size)
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{
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	while (log_first_seq < log_next_seq &&
	       !logbuf_has_space(msg_size, false)) {
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		/* drop old messages until we have enough contiguous space */
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		log_first_idx = log_next(log_first_idx);
		log_first_seq++;
	}
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	if (clear_seq < log_first_seq) {
		clear_seq = log_first_seq;
		clear_idx = log_first_idx;
	}

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	/* sequence numbers are equal, so the log buffer is empty */
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	if (logbuf_has_space(msg_size, log_first_seq == log_next_seq))
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		return 0;

	return -ENOMEM;
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}

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/* compute the message size including the padding bytes */
static u32 msg_used_size(u16 text_len, u16 dict_len, u32 *pad_len)
{
	u32 size;

	size = sizeof(struct printk_log) + text_len + dict_len;
	*pad_len = (-size) & (LOG_ALIGN - 1);
	size += *pad_len;

	return size;
}

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/*
 * Define how much of the log buffer we could take at maximum. The value
 * must be greater than two. Note that only half of the buffer is available
 * when the index points to the middle.
 */
#define MAX_LOG_TAKE_PART 4
static const char trunc_msg[] = "<truncated>";

static u32 truncate_msg(u16 *text_len, u16 *trunc_msg_len,
			u16 *dict_len, u32 *pad_len)
{
	/*
	 * The message should not take the whole buffer. Otherwise, it might
	 * get removed too soon.
	 */
	u32 max_text_len = log_buf_len / MAX_LOG_TAKE_PART;
	if (*text_len > max_text_len)
		*text_len = max_text_len;
	/* enable the warning message */
	*trunc_msg_len = strlen(trunc_msg);
	/* disable the "dict" completely */
	*dict_len = 0;
	/* compute the size again, count also the warning message */
	return msg_used_size(*text_len + *trunc_msg_len, 0, pad_len);
}

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/* insert record into the buffer, discard old ones, update heads */
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static int log_store(int facility, int level,
		     enum log_flags flags, u64 ts_nsec,
		     const char *dict, u16 dict_len,
		     const char *text, u16 text_len)
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{
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	struct printk_log *msg;
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	u32 size, pad_len;
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	u16 trunc_msg_len = 0;
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	/* number of '\0' padding bytes to next message */
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	size = msg_used_size(text_len, dict_len, &pad_len);
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	if (log_make_free_space(size)) {
		/* truncate the message if it is too long for empty buffer */
		size = truncate_msg(&text_len, &trunc_msg_len,
				    &dict_len, &pad_len);
		/* survive when the log buffer is too small for trunc_msg */
		if (log_make_free_space(size))
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			return 0;
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	}
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	if (log_next_idx + size + sizeof(struct printk_log) > log_buf_len) {
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		/*
		 * This message + an additional empty header does not fit
		 * at the end of the buffer. Add an empty header with len == 0
		 * to signify a wrap around.
		 */
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		memset(log_buf + log_next_idx, 0, sizeof(struct printk_log));
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		log_next_idx = 0;
	}

	/* fill message */
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	msg = (struct printk_log *)(log_buf + log_next_idx);
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	memcpy(log_text(msg), text, text_len);
	msg->text_len = text_len;
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	if (trunc_msg_len) {
		memcpy(log_text(msg) + text_len, trunc_msg, trunc_msg_len);
		msg->text_len += trunc_msg_len;
	}
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	memcpy(log_dict(msg), dict, dict_len);
	msg->dict_len = dict_len;
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	msg->facility = facility;
	msg->level = level & 7;
	msg->flags = flags & 0x1f;
	if (ts_nsec > 0)
		msg->ts_nsec = ts_nsec;
	else
		msg->ts_nsec = local_clock();
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	memset(log_dict(msg) + dict_len, 0, pad_len);
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	msg->len = size;
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	/* insert message */
	log_next_idx += msg->len;
	log_next_seq++;
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	return msg->text_len;
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}
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int dmesg_restrict = IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_SECURITY_DMESG_RESTRICT);
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static int syslog_action_restricted(int type)
{
	if (dmesg_restrict)
		return 1;
	/*
	 * Unless restricted, we allow "read all" and "get buffer size"
	 * for everybody.
	 */
	return type != SYSLOG_ACTION_READ_ALL &&
	       type != SYSLOG_ACTION_SIZE_BUFFER;
}

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int check_syslog_permissions(int type, int source)
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{
	/*
	 * If this is from /proc/kmsg and we've already opened it, then we've
	 * already done the capabilities checks at open time.
	 */
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	if (source == SYSLOG_FROM_PROC && type != SYSLOG_ACTION_OPEN)
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		goto ok;
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	if (syslog_action_restricted(type)) {
		if (capable(CAP_SYSLOG))
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			goto ok;
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		/*
		 * For historical reasons, accept CAP_SYS_ADMIN too, with
		 * a warning.
		 */
		if (capable(CAP_SYS_ADMIN)) {
			pr_warn_once("%s (%d): Attempt to access syslog with "
				     "CAP_SYS_ADMIN but no CAP_SYSLOG "
				     "(deprecated).\n",
				 current->comm, task_pid_nr(current));
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			goto ok;
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		}
		return -EPERM;
	}
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ok:
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	return security_syslog(type);
}
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EXPORT_SYMBOL_GPL(check_syslog_permissions);
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static void append_char(char **pp, char *e, char c)
{
	if (*pp < e)
		*(*pp)++ = c;
}
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static ssize_t msg_print_ext_header(char *buf, size_t size,
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				    struct printk_log *msg, u64 seq)
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{
	u64 ts_usec = msg->ts_nsec;

	do_div(ts_usec, 1000);

	return scnprintf(buf, size, "%u,%llu,%llu,%c;",
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		       (msg->facility << 3) | msg->level, seq, ts_usec,
		       msg->flags & LOG_CONT ? 'c' : '-');
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}

static ssize_t msg_print_ext_body(char *buf, size_t size,
				  char *dict, size_t dict_len,
				  char *text, size_t text_len)
{
	char *p = buf, *e = buf + size;
	size_t i;

	/* escape non-printable characters */
	for (i = 0; i < text_len; i++) {
		unsigned char c = text[i];

		if (c < ' ' || c >= 127 || c == '\\')
			p += scnprintf(p, e - p, "\\x%02x", c);
		else
			append_char(&p, e, c);
	}
	append_char(&p, e, '\n');

	if (dict_len) {
		bool line = true;

		for (i = 0; i < dict_len; i++) {
			unsigned char c = dict[i];

			if (line) {
				append_char(&p, e, ' ');
				line = false;
			}

			if (c == '\0') {
				append_char(&p, e, '\n');
				line = true;
				continue;
			}

			if (c < ' ' || c >= 127 || c == '\\') {
				p += scnprintf(p, e - p, "\\x%02x", c);
				continue;
			}

			append_char(&p, e, c);
		}
		append_char(&p, e, '\n');
	}

	return p - buf;
}

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/* /dev/kmsg - userspace message inject/listen interface */
struct devkmsg_user {
	u64 seq;
	u32 idx;
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	struct ratelimit_state rs;
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	struct mutex lock;
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	char buf[CONSOLE_EXT_LOG_MAX];
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};

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static ssize_t devkmsg_write(struct kiocb *iocb, struct iov_iter *from)
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{
	char *buf, *line;
	int level = default_message_loglevel;
	int facility = 1;	/* LOG_USER */
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	struct file *file = iocb->ki_filp;
	struct devkmsg_user *user = file->private_data;
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	size_t len = iov_iter_count(from);
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	ssize_t ret = len;

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	if (!user || len > LOG_LINE_MAX)
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		return -EINVAL;
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	/* Ignore when user logging is disabled. */
	if (devkmsg_log & DEVKMSG_LOG_MASK_OFF)
		return len;

	/* Ratelimit when not explicitly enabled. */
	if (!(devkmsg_log & DEVKMSG_LOG_MASK_ON)) {
		if (!___ratelimit(&user->rs, current->comm))
			return ret;
	}

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	buf = kmalloc(len+1, GFP_KERNEL);
	if (buf == NULL)
		return -ENOMEM;

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	buf[len] = '\0';
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	if (!copy_from_iter_full(buf, len, from)) {
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		kfree(buf);
		return -EFAULT;
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	}

	/*
	 * Extract and skip the syslog prefix <[0-9]*>. Coming from userspace
	 * the decimal value represents 32bit, the lower 3 bit are the log
	 * level, the rest are the log facility.
	 *
	 * If no prefix or no userspace facility is specified, we
	 * enforce LOG_USER, to be able to reliably distinguish
	 * kernel-generated messages from userspace-injected ones.
	 */
	line = buf;
	if (line[0] == '<') {
		char *endp = NULL;
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		unsigned int u;
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		u = simple_strtoul(line + 1, &endp, 10);
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		if (endp && endp[0] == '>') {
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			level = LOG_LEVEL(u);
			if (LOG_FACILITY(u) != 0)
				facility = LOG_FACILITY(u);
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			endp++;
			len -= endp - line;
			line = endp;
		}
	}

	printk_emit(facility, level, NULL, 0, "%s", line);
	kfree(buf);
	return ret;
}

static ssize_t devkmsg_read(struct file *file, char __user *buf,
			    size_t count, loff_t *ppos)
{
	struct devkmsg_user *user = file->private_data;
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	struct printk_log *msg;
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	size_t len;
	ssize_t ret;

	if (!user)
		return -EBADF;

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	ret = mutex_lock_interruptible(&user->lock);
	if (ret)
		return ret;
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	logbuf_lock_irq();
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	while (user->seq == log_next_seq) {
		if (file->f_flags & O_NONBLOCK) {
			ret = -EAGAIN;
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			logbuf_unlock_irq();
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			goto out;
		}

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		logbuf_unlock_irq();
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		ret = wait_event_interruptible(log_wait,
					       user->seq != log_next_seq);
		if (ret)
			goto out;
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		logbuf_lock_irq();
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	}

	if (user->seq < log_first_seq) {
		/* our last seen message is gone, return error and reset */
		user->idx = log_first_idx;
		user->seq = log_first_seq;
		ret = -EPIPE;
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		logbuf_unlock_irq();
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		goto out;
	}

	msg = log_from_idx(user->idx);
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	len = msg_print_ext_header(user->buf, sizeof(user->buf),
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				   msg, user->seq);
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	len += msg_print_ext_body(user->buf + len, sizeof(user->buf) - len,
				  log_dict(msg), msg->dict_len,
				  log_text(msg), msg->text_len);
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	user->idx = log_next(user->idx);
	user->seq++;
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	logbuf_unlock_irq();
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	if (len > count) {
		ret = -EINVAL;
		goto out;
	}

	if (copy_to_user(buf, user->buf, len)) {
		ret = -EFAULT;
		goto out;
	}
	ret = len;
out:
	mutex_unlock(&user->lock);
	return ret;
}

static loff_t devkmsg_llseek(struct file *file, loff_t offset, int whence)
{
	struct devkmsg_user *user = file->private_data;
	loff_t ret = 0;

	if (!user)
		return -EBADF;
	if (offset)
		return -ESPIPE;

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	logbuf_lock_irq();
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	switch (whence) {
	case SEEK_SET:
		/* the first record */
		user->idx = log_first_idx;
		user->seq = log_first_seq;
		break;
	case SEEK_DATA:
		/*
		 * The first record after the last SYSLOG_ACTION_CLEAR,
		 * like issued by 'dmesg -c'. Reading /dev/kmsg itself
		 * changes no global state, and does not clear anything.
		 */
		user->idx = clear_idx;
		user->seq = clear_seq;
		break;
	case SEEK_END:
		/* after the last record */
		user->idx = log_next_idx;
		user->seq = log_next_seq;
		break;
	default:
		ret = -EINVAL;
	}
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	logbuf_unlock_irq();
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	return ret;
}

static unsigned int devkmsg_poll(struct file *file, poll_table *wait)
{
	struct devkmsg_user *user = file->private_data;
	int ret = 0;

	if (!user)
		return POLLERR|POLLNVAL;

	poll_wait(file, &log_wait, wait);

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	logbuf_lock_irq();
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	if (user->seq < log_next_seq) {
		/* return error when data has vanished underneath us */
		if (user->seq < log_first_seq)
			ret = POLLIN|POLLRDNORM|POLLERR|POLLPRI;
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		else
			ret = POLLIN|POLLRDNORM;
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	}
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	logbuf_unlock_irq();
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	return ret;
}

static int devkmsg_open(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
{
	struct devkmsg_user *user;
	int err;

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	if (devkmsg_log & DEVKMSG_LOG_MASK_OFF)
		return -EPERM;
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	/* write-only does not need any file context */
	if ((file->f_flags & O_ACCMODE) != O_WRONLY) {
		err = check_syslog_permissions(SYSLOG_ACTION_READ_ALL,
					       SYSLOG_FROM_READER);
		if (err)
			return err;
	}
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	user = kmalloc(sizeof(struct devkmsg_user), GFP_KERNEL);
	if (!user)
		return -ENOMEM;

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	ratelimit_default_init(&user->rs);
	ratelimit_set_flags(&user->rs, RATELIMIT_MSG_ON_RELEASE);

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	mutex_init(&user->lock);

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	logbuf_lock_irq();
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	user->idx = log_first_idx;
	user->seq = log_first_seq;
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	logbuf_unlock_irq();
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	file->private_data = user;
	return 0;
}

static int devkmsg_release(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)
{
	struct devkmsg_user *user = file->private_data;

	if (!user)
		return 0;

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	ratelimit_state_exit(&user->rs);

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	mutex_destroy(&user->lock);
	kfree(user);
	return 0;
}

const struct file_operations kmsg_fops = {
	.open = devkmsg_open,
	.read = devkmsg_read,
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	.write_iter = devkmsg_write,
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	.llseek = devkmsg_llseek,
	.poll = devkmsg_poll,
	.release = devkmsg_release,
};

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#ifdef CONFIG_CRASH_CORE
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/*
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 * This appends the listed symbols to /proc/vmcore
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 *
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 * /proc/vmcore is used by various utilities, like crash and makedumpfile to
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 * obtain access to symbols that are otherwise very difficult to locate.  These
 * symbols are specifically used so that utilities can access and extract the
 * dmesg log from a vmcore file after a crash.
 */
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void log_buf_vmcoreinfo_setup(void)
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{
	VMCOREINFO_SYMBOL(log_buf);
	VMCOREINFO_SYMBOL(log_buf_len);
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	VMCOREINFO_SYMBOL(log_first_idx);
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	VMCOREINFO_SYMBOL(clear_idx);
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	VMCOREINFO_SYMBOL(log_next_idx);
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	/*
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	 * Export struct printk_log size and field offsets. User space tools can
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	 * parse it and detect any changes to structure down the line.
	 */
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	VMCOREINFO_STRUCT_SIZE(printk_log);
	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(printk_log, ts_nsec);
	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(printk_log, len);
	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(printk_log, text_len);
	VMCOREINFO_OFFSET(printk_log, dict_len);
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}
#endif

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/* requested log_buf_len from kernel cmdline */
static unsigned long __initdata new_log_buf_len;

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/* we practice scaling the ring buffer by powers of 2 */
static void __init log_buf_len_update(unsigned size)
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{
	if (size)
		size = roundup_pow_of_two(size);
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	if (size > log_buf_len)
		new_log_buf_len = size;
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}

/* save requested log_buf_len since it's too early to process it */
static int __init log_buf_len_setup(char *str)
{
	unsigned size = memparse(str, &str);

	log_buf_len_update(size);
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	return 0;
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}
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early_param("log_buf_len", log_buf_len_setup);

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#ifdef CONFIG_SMP
#define __LOG_CPU_MAX_BUF_LEN (1 << CONFIG_LOG_CPU_MAX_BUF_SHIFT)

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static void __init log_buf_add_cpu(void)
{
	unsigned int cpu_extra;

	/*
	 * archs should set up cpu_possible_bits properly with
	 * set_cpu_possible() after setup_arch() but just in
	 * case lets ensure this is valid.
	 */
	if (num_possible_cpus() == 1)
		return;

	cpu_extra = (num_possible_cpus() - 1) * __LOG_CPU_MAX_BUF_LEN;

	/* by default this will only continue through for large > 64 CPUs */
	if (cpu_extra <= __LOG_BUF_LEN / 2)
		return;

	pr_info("log_buf_len individual max cpu contribution: %d bytes\n",
		__LOG_CPU_MAX_BUF_LEN);
	pr_info("log_buf_len total cpu_extra contributions: %d bytes\n",
		cpu_extra);
	pr_info("log_buf_len min size: %d bytes\n", __LOG_BUF_LEN);

	log_buf_len_update(cpu_extra + __LOG_BUF_LEN);
}
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#else /* !CONFIG_SMP */
static inline void log_buf_add_cpu(void) {}
#endif /* CONFIG_SMP */
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void __init setup_log_buf(int early)
{
	unsigned long flags;
	char *new_log_buf;
	int free;

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	if (log_buf != __log_buf)
		return;

	if (!early && !new_log_buf_len)
		log_buf_add_cpu();

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	if (!new_log_buf_len)
		return;
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	if (early) {
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		new_log_buf =
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			memblock_virt_alloc(new_log_buf_len, LOG_ALIGN);
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	} else {
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		new_log_buf = memblock_virt_alloc_nopanic(new_log_buf_len,
							  LOG_ALIGN);
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	}

	if (unlikely(!new_log_buf)) {
		pr_err("log_buf_len: %ld bytes not available\n",
			new_log_buf_len);
		return;
	}

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	logbuf_lock_irqsave(flags);
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	log_buf_len = new_log_buf_len;
	log_buf = new_log_buf;
	new_log_buf_len = 0;
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	free = __LOG_BUF_LEN - log_next_idx;
	memcpy(log_buf, __log_buf, __LOG_BUF_LEN);
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	logbuf_unlock_irqrestore(flags);
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	pr_info("log_buf_len: %d bytes\n", log_buf_len);
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	pr_info("early log buf free: %d(%d%%)\n",
		free, (free * 100) / __LOG_BUF_LEN);
}
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static bool __read_mostly ignore_loglevel;

static int __init ignore_loglevel_setup(char *str)
{
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	ignore_loglevel = true;
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	pr_info("debug: ignoring loglevel setting.\n");
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	return 0;
}

early_param("ignore_loglevel", ignore_loglevel_setup);
module_param(ignore_loglevel, bool, S_IRUGO | S_IWUSR);
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MODULE_PARM_DESC(ignore_loglevel,
		 "ignore loglevel setting (prints all kernel messages to the console)");
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static bool suppress_message_printing(int level)
{
	return (level >= console_loglevel && !ignore_loglevel);
}

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#ifdef CONFIG_BOOT_PRINTK_DELAY

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static int boot_delay; /* msecs delay after each printk during bootup */
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static unsigned long long loops_per_msec;	/* based on boot_delay */
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static int __init boot_delay_setup(char *str)
{
	unsigned long lpj;

	lpj = preset_lpj ? preset_lpj : 1000000;	/* some guess */
	loops_per_msec = (unsigned long long)lpj / 1000 * HZ;

	get_option(&str, &boot_delay);
	if (boot_delay > 10 * 1000)
		boot_delay = 0;

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	pr_debug("boot_delay: %u, preset_lpj: %ld, lpj: %lu, "
		"HZ: %d, loops_per_msec: %llu\n",
		boot_delay, preset_lpj, lpj, HZ, loops_per_msec);
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	return 0;
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}
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early_param("boot_delay", boot_delay_setup);
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static void boot_delay_msec(int level)
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{
	unsigned long long k;
	unsigned long timeout;

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	if ((boot_delay == 0 || system_state >= SYSTEM_RUNNING)
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		|| suppress_message_printing(level)) {
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		return;
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	}
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	k = (unsigned long long)loops_per_msec * boot_delay;
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	timeout = jiffies + msecs_to_jiffies(boot_delay);
	while (k) {
		k--;
		cpu_relax();
		/*
		 * use (volatile) jiffies to prevent
		 * compiler reduction; loop termination via jiffies
		 * is secondary and may or may not happen.
		 */
		if (time_after(jiffies, timeout))
			break;
		touch_nmi_watchdog();
	}
}
#else
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static inline void boot_delay_msec(int level)
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{
}
#endif

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static bool printk_time = IS_ENABLED(CONFIG_PRINTK_TIME);
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module_param_named(time, printk_time, bool, S_IRUGO | S_IWUSR);

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static size_t print_time(u64 ts, char *buf)
{
	unsigned long rem_nsec;

	if (!printk_time)
		return 0;

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	rem_nsec = do_div(ts, 1000000000);

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	if (!buf)
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		return snprintf(NULL, 0, "[%5lu.000000] ", (unsigned long)ts);
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	return sprintf(buf, "[%5lu.%06lu] ",
		       (unsigned long)ts, rem_nsec / 1000);
}

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static size_t print_prefix(const struct printk_log *msg, bool syslog, char *buf)
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{
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	size_t len = 0;
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	unsigned int prefix = (msg->facility << 3) | msg->level;
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	if (syslog) {
		if (buf) {
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			len += sprintf(buf, "<%u>", prefix);
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		} else {
			len += 3;
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			if (prefix > 999)
				len += 3;
			else if (prefix > 99)
				len += 2;
			else if (prefix > 9)
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				len++;
		}
	}
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	len += print_time(msg->ts_nsec, buf ? buf + len : NULL);
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	return len;
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}

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static size_t msg_print_text(const struct printk_log *msg, bool syslog, char *buf, size_t size)
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{
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	const char *text = log_text(msg);
	size_t text_size = msg->text_len;
	size_t len = 0;

	do {
		const char *next = memchr(text, '\n', text_size);
		size_t text_len;

		if (next) {
			text_len = next - text;
			next++;
			text_size -= next - text;
		} else {
			text_len = text_size;
		}
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		if (buf) {
			if (print_prefix(msg, syslog, NULL) +
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			    text_len + 1 >= size - len)
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				break;
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			len += print_prefix(msg, syslog, buf + len);
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			memcpy(buf + len, text, text_len);
			len += text_len;
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			buf[len++] = '\n';
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		} else {
			/* SYSLOG_ACTION_* buffer size only calculation */
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			len += print_prefix(msg, syslog, NULL);
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			len += text_len;
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			len++;
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		}
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		text = next;
	} while (text);
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	return len;
}

static int syslog_print(char __user *buf, int size)
{
	char *text;
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	struct printk_log *msg;
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	int len = 0;
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	text = kmalloc(LOG_LINE_MAX + PREFIX_MAX, GFP_KERNEL);
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	if (!text)
		return -ENOMEM;

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	while (size > 0) {
		size_t n;
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		size_t skip;
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		logbuf_lock_irq();
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		if (syslog_seq < log_first_seq) {
			/* messages are gone, move to first one */
			syslog_seq = log_first_seq;
			syslog_idx = log_first_idx;
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			syslog_partial = 0;
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		}
		if (syslog_seq == log_next_seq) {
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			logbuf_unlock_irq();
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			break;
		}
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		skip = syslog_partial;
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		msg = log_from_idx(syslog_idx);
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		n = msg_print_text(msg, true, text, LOG_LINE_MAX + PREFIX_MAX);
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		if (n - syslog_partial <= size) {
			/* message fits into buffer, move forward */
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			syslog_idx = log_next(syslog_idx);
			syslog_seq++;
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			n -= syslog_partial;
			syslog_partial = 0;
		} else if (!len){
			/* partial read(), remember position */
			n = size;
			syslog_partial += n;
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		} else
			n = 0;
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		logbuf_unlock_irq();
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		if (!n)
			break;

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		if (copy_to_user(buf, text + skip, n)) {
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			if (!len)
				len = -EFAULT;
			break;
		}
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		len += n;
		size -= n;
		buf += n;
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	}

	kfree(text);
	return len;
}

static int syslog_print_all(char __user *buf, int size, bool clear)
{
	char *text;
	int len = 0;

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	text = kmalloc(LOG_LINE_MAX + PREFIX_MAX, GFP_KERNEL);
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	if (!text)
		return -ENOMEM;