qspinlock.c 14.4 KB
Newer Older
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
/*
 * Queued spinlock
 *
 * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
 * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
 * (at your option) any later version.
 *
 * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 * GNU General Public License for more details.
 *
 * (C) Copyright 2013-2015 Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.
 * (C) Copyright 2013-2014 Red Hat, Inc.
 * (C) Copyright 2015 Intel Corp.
17
 * (C) Copyright 2015 Hewlett-Packard Enterprise Development LP
18
 *
19
 * Authors: Waiman Long <waiman.long@hpe.com>
20
21
 *          Peter Zijlstra <peterz@infradead.org>
 */
22
23
24

#ifndef _GEN_PV_LOCK_SLOWPATH

25
26
27
28
29
30
#include <linux/smp.h>
#include <linux/bug.h>
#include <linux/cpumask.h>
#include <linux/percpu.h>
#include <linux/hardirq.h>
#include <linux/mutex.h>
31
#include <linux/prefetch.h>
32
#include <asm/byteorder.h>
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
#include <asm/qspinlock.h>

/*
 * The basic principle of a queue-based spinlock can best be understood
 * by studying a classic queue-based spinlock implementation called the
 * MCS lock. The paper below provides a good description for this kind
 * of lock.
 *
 * http://www.cise.ufl.edu/tr/DOC/REP-1992-71.pdf
 *
 * This queued spinlock implementation is based on the MCS lock, however to make
 * it fit the 4 bytes we assume spinlock_t to be, and preserve its existing
 * API, we must modify it somehow.
 *
 * In particular; where the traditional MCS lock consists of a tail pointer
 * (8 bytes) and needs the next pointer (another 8 bytes) of its own node to
 * unlock the next pending (next->locked), we compress both these: {tail,
 * next->locked} into a single u32 value.
 *
 * Since a spinlock disables recursion of its own context and there is a limit
 * to the contexts that can nest; namely: task, softirq, hardirq, nmi. As there
 * are at most 4 nesting levels, it can be encoded by a 2-bit number. Now
 * we can encode the tail by combining the 2-bit nesting level with the cpu
 * number. With one byte for the lock value and 3 bytes for the tail, only a
 * 32-bit word is now needed. Even though we only need 1 bit for the lock,
 * we extend it to a full byte to achieve better performance for architectures
 * that support atomic byte write.
 *
 * We also change the first spinner to spin on the lock bit instead of its
 * node; whereby avoiding the need to carry a node from lock to unlock, and
 * preserving existing lock API. This also makes the unlock code simpler and
 * faster.
65
66
67
68
 *
 * N.B. The current implementation only supports architectures that allow
 *      atomic operations on smaller 8-bit and 16-bit data types.
 *
69
70
71
72
 */

#include "mcs_spinlock.h"

73
74
75
76
77
78
#ifdef CONFIG_PARAVIRT_SPINLOCKS
#define MAX_NODES	8
#else
#define MAX_NODES	4
#endif

79
80
81
82
83
/*
 * Per-CPU queue node structures; we can never have more than 4 nested
 * contexts: task, softirq, hardirq, nmi.
 *
 * Exactly fits one 64-byte cacheline on a 64-bit architecture.
84
85
 *
 * PV doubles the storage and uses the second cacheline for PV state.
86
 */
87
static DEFINE_PER_CPU_ALIGNED(struct mcs_spinlock, mcs_nodes[MAX_NODES]);
88
89
90
91
92
93

/*
 * We must be able to distinguish between no-tail and the tail at 0:0,
 * therefore increment the cpu number by one.
 */

94
static inline __pure u32 encode_tail(int cpu, int idx)
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
{
	u32 tail;

#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_SPINLOCK
	BUG_ON(idx > 3);
#endif
	tail  = (cpu + 1) << _Q_TAIL_CPU_OFFSET;
	tail |= idx << _Q_TAIL_IDX_OFFSET; /* assume < 4 */

	return tail;
}

107
static inline __pure struct mcs_spinlock *decode_tail(u32 tail)
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
{
	int cpu = (tail >> _Q_TAIL_CPU_OFFSET) - 1;
	int idx = (tail &  _Q_TAIL_IDX_MASK) >> _Q_TAIL_IDX_OFFSET;

	return per_cpu_ptr(&mcs_nodes[idx], cpu);
}

115
116
#define _Q_LOCKED_PENDING_MASK (_Q_LOCKED_MASK | _Q_PENDING_MASK)

117
118
119
120
/*
 * By using the whole 2nd least significant byte for the pending bit, we
 * can allow better optimization of the lock acquisition for the pending
 * bit holder.
121
122
123
 *
 * This internal structure is also used by the set_locked function which
 * is not restricted to _Q_PENDING_BITS == 8.
124
125
126
127
128
 */
struct __qspinlock {
	union {
		atomic_t val;
#ifdef __LITTLE_ENDIAN
129
130
131
132
133
		struct {
			u8	locked;
			u8	pending;
		};
		struct {
134
135
			u16	locked_pending;
			u16	tail;
136
		};
137
#else
138
		struct {
139
140
141
			u16	tail;
			u16	locked_pending;
		};
142
143
144
145
146
147
		struct {
			u8	reserved[2];
			u8	pending;
			u8	locked;
		};
#endif
148
149
150
	};
};

151
#if _Q_PENDING_BITS == 8
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
/**
 * clear_pending_set_locked - take ownership and clear the pending bit.
 * @lock: Pointer to queued spinlock structure
 *
 * *,1,0 -> *,0,1
 *
 * Lock stealing is not allowed if this function is used.
 */
static __always_inline void clear_pending_set_locked(struct qspinlock *lock)
{
	struct __qspinlock *l = (void *)lock;

	WRITE_ONCE(l->locked_pending, _Q_LOCKED_VAL);
}

/*
 * xchg_tail - Put in the new queue tail code word & retrieve previous one
 * @lock : Pointer to queued spinlock structure
 * @tail : The new queue tail code word
 * Return: The previous queue tail code word
 *
173
 * xchg(lock, tail), which heads an address dependency
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
 *
 * p,*,* -> n,*,* ; prev = xchg(lock, node)
 */
static __always_inline u32 xchg_tail(struct qspinlock *lock, u32 tail)
{
	struct __qspinlock *l = (void *)lock;

181
182
183
184
185
186
	/*
	 * Use release semantics to make sure that the MCS node is properly
	 * initialized before changing the tail code.
	 */
	return (u32)xchg_release(&l->tail,
				 tail >> _Q_TAIL_OFFSET) << _Q_TAIL_OFFSET;
187
188
189
190
}

#else /* _Q_PENDING_BITS == 8 */

191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
/**
 * clear_pending_set_locked - take ownership and clear the pending bit.
 * @lock: Pointer to queued spinlock structure
 *
 * *,1,0 -> *,0,1
 */
static __always_inline void clear_pending_set_locked(struct qspinlock *lock)
{
	atomic_add(-_Q_PENDING_VAL + _Q_LOCKED_VAL, &lock->val);
}

/**
 * xchg_tail - Put in the new queue tail code word & retrieve previous one
 * @lock : Pointer to queued spinlock structure
 * @tail : The new queue tail code word
 * Return: The previous queue tail code word
 *
 * xchg(lock, tail)
 *
 * p,*,* -> n,*,* ; prev = xchg(lock, node)
 */
static __always_inline u32 xchg_tail(struct qspinlock *lock, u32 tail)
{
	u32 old, new, val = atomic_read(&lock->val);

	for (;;) {
		new = (val & _Q_LOCKED_PENDING_MASK) | tail;
218
219
220
221
222
		/*
		 * Use release semantics to make sure that the MCS node is
		 * properly initialized before changing the tail code.
		 */
		old = atomic_cmpxchg_release(&lock->val, val, new);
223
224
225
226
227
228
229
		if (old == val)
			break;

		val = old;
	}
	return old;
}
230
#endif /* _Q_PENDING_BITS == 8 */
231

232
233
234
235
236
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
244
/**
 * set_locked - Set the lock bit and own the lock
 * @lock: Pointer to queued spinlock structure
 *
 * *,*,0 -> *,0,1
 */
static __always_inline void set_locked(struct qspinlock *lock)
{
	struct __qspinlock *l = (void *)lock;

	WRITE_ONCE(l->locked, _Q_LOCKED_VAL);
}

245
246
247
248
249
250
251

/*
 * Generate the native code for queued_spin_unlock_slowpath(); provide NOPs for
 * all the PV callbacks.
 */

static __always_inline void __pv_init_node(struct mcs_spinlock *node) { }
252
253
static __always_inline void __pv_wait_node(struct mcs_spinlock *node,
					   struct mcs_spinlock *prev) { }
254
255
static __always_inline void __pv_kick_node(struct qspinlock *lock,
					   struct mcs_spinlock *node) { }
256
257
258
static __always_inline u32  __pv_wait_head_or_lock(struct qspinlock *lock,
						   struct mcs_spinlock *node)
						   { return 0; }
259
260
261
262
263
264

#define pv_enabled()		false

#define pv_init_node		__pv_init_node
#define pv_wait_node		__pv_wait_node
#define pv_kick_node		__pv_kick_node
265
#define pv_wait_head_or_lock	__pv_wait_head_or_lock
266
267
268
269
270
271
272

#ifdef CONFIG_PARAVIRT_SPINLOCKS
#define queued_spin_lock_slowpath	native_queued_spin_lock_slowpath
#endif

#endif /* _GEN_PV_LOCK_SLOWPATH */

273
274
275
276
277
/**
 * queued_spin_lock_slowpath - acquire the queued spinlock
 * @lock: Pointer to queued spinlock structure
 * @val: Current value of the queued spinlock 32-bit word
 *
278
 * (queue tail, pending bit, lock value)
279
 *
280
281
282
283
284
285
286
287
288
289
290
291
292
 *              fast     :    slow                                  :    unlock
 *                       :                                          :
 * uncontended  (0,0,0) -:--> (0,0,1) ------------------------------:--> (*,*,0)
 *                       :       | ^--------.------.             /  :
 *                       :       v           \      \            |  :
 * pending               :    (0,1,1) +--> (0,1,0)   \           |  :
 *                       :       | ^--'              |           |  :
 *                       :       v                   |           |  :
 * uncontended           :    (n,x,y) +--> (n,0,0) --'           |  :
 *   queue               :       | ^--'                          |  :
 *                       :       v                               |  :
 * contended             :    (*,x,y) +--> (*,0,0) ---> (*,0,1) -'  :
 *   queue               :         ^--'                             :
293
294
295
296
297
298
299
300
301
 */
void queued_spin_lock_slowpath(struct qspinlock *lock, u32 val)
{
	struct mcs_spinlock *prev, *next, *node;
	u32 new, old, tail;
	int idx;

	BUILD_BUG_ON(CONFIG_NR_CPUS >= (1U << _Q_TAIL_CPU_BITS));

302
303
304
	if (pv_enabled())
		goto queue;

305
	if (virt_spin_lock(lock))
306
307
		return;

308
309
310
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
320
321
322
323
324
325
326
327
328
329
330
331
332
333
334
	/*
	 * wait for in-progress pending->locked hand-overs
	 *
	 * 0,1,0 -> 0,0,1
	 */
	if (val == _Q_PENDING_VAL) {
		while ((val = atomic_read(&lock->val)) == _Q_PENDING_VAL)
			cpu_relax();
	}

	/*
	 * trylock || pending
	 *
	 * 0,0,0 -> 0,0,1 ; trylock
	 * 0,0,1 -> 0,1,1 ; pending
	 */
	for (;;) {
		/*
		 * If we observe any contention; queue.
		 */
		if (val & ~_Q_LOCKED_MASK)
			goto queue;

		new = _Q_LOCKED_VAL;
		if (val == new)
			new |= _Q_PENDING_VAL;

335
336
337
338
339
		/*
		 * Acquire semantic is required here as the function may
		 * return immediately if the lock was free.
		 */
		old = atomic_cmpxchg_acquire(&lock->val, val, new);
340
341
342
343
344
345
346
347
348
349
350
351
352
353
354
355
		if (old == val)
			break;

		val = old;
	}

	/*
	 * we won the trylock
	 */
	if (new == _Q_LOCKED_VAL)
		return;

	/*
	 * we're pending, wait for the owner to go away.
	 *
	 * *,1,1 -> *,1,0
356
357
358
359
360
	 *
	 * this wait loop must be a load-acquire such that we match the
	 * store-release that clears the locked bit and create lock
	 * sequentiality; this is because not all clear_pending_set_locked()
	 * implementations imply full barriers.
361
	 */
362
	smp_cond_load_acquire(&lock->val.counter, !(VAL & _Q_LOCKED_MASK));
363
364
365
366
367
368

	/*
	 * take ownership and clear the pending bit.
	 *
	 * *,1,0 -> *,0,1
	 */
369
	clear_pending_set_locked(lock);
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
	return;

	/*
	 * End of pending bit optimistic spinning and beginning of MCS
	 * queuing.
	 */
queue:
377
378
379
380
381
	node = this_cpu_ptr(&mcs_nodes[0]);
	idx = node->count++;
	tail = encode_tail(smp_processor_id(), idx);

	node += idx;
382
383
384
385
386
387
388
389

	/*
	 * Ensure that we increment the head node->count before initialising
	 * the actual node. If the compiler is kind enough to reorder these
	 * stores, then an IRQ could overwrite our assignments.
	 */
	barrier();

390
391
	node->locked = 0;
	node->next = NULL;
392
	pv_init_node(node);
393
394

	/*
395
396
397
	 * We touched a (possibly) cold cacheline in the per-cpu queue node;
	 * attempt the trylock once more in the hope someone let go while we
	 * weren't watching.
398
	 */
399
400
	if (queued_spin_trylock(lock))
		goto release;
401
402

	/*
403
404
405
406
	 * We have already touched the queueing cacheline; don't bother with
	 * pending stuff.
	 *
	 * p,*,* -> n,*,*
407
408
	 *
	 * RELEASE, such that the stores to @node must be complete.
409
	 */
410
	old = xchg_tail(lock, tail);
411
	next = NULL;
412
413
414
415
416

	/*
	 * if there was a previous node; link it and wait until reaching the
	 * head of the waitqueue.
	 */
417
	if (old & _Q_TAIL_MASK) {
418
		prev = decode_tail(old);
419
		/*
420
421
422
423
		 * The above xchg_tail() is also a load of @lock which
		 * generates, through decode_tail(), a pointer.  The address
		 * dependency matches the RELEASE of xchg_tail() such that
		 * the subsequent access to @prev happens after.
424
425
		 */

426
427
		WRITE_ONCE(prev->next, node);

428
		pv_wait_node(node, prev);
429
		arch_mcs_spin_lock_contended(&node->locked);
430
431
432
433
434
435
436
437
438
439

		/*
		 * While waiting for the MCS lock, the next pointer may have
		 * been set by another lock waiter. We optimistically load
		 * the next pointer & prefetch the cacheline for writing
		 * to reduce latency in the upcoming MCS unlock operation.
		 */
		next = READ_ONCE(node->next);
		if (next)
			prefetchw(next);
440
441
442
	}

	/*
443
444
	 * we're at the head of the waitqueue, wait for the owner & pending to
	 * go away.
445
	 *
446
	 * *,x,y -> *,0,0
447
448
449
450
451
452
	 *
	 * this wait loop must use a load-acquire such that we match the
	 * store-release that clears the locked bit and create lock
	 * sequentiality; this is because the set_locked() function below
	 * does not imply a full barrier.
	 *
453
454
	 * The PV pv_wait_head_or_lock function, if active, will acquire
	 * the lock and return a non-zero value. So we have to skip the
455
	 * smp_cond_load_acquire() call. As the next PV queue head hasn't been
456
457
458
459
460
461
	 * designated yet, there is no way for the locked value to become
	 * _Q_SLOW_VAL. So both the set_locked() and the
	 * atomic_cmpxchg_relaxed() calls will be safe.
	 *
	 * If PV isn't active, 0 will be returned instead.
	 *
462
	 */
463
464
465
	if ((val = pv_wait_head_or_lock(lock, node)))
		goto locked;

466
	val = smp_cond_load_acquire(&lock->val.counter, !(VAL & _Q_LOCKED_PENDING_MASK));
467

468
locked:
469
470
471
	/*
	 * claim the lock:
	 *
472
473
	 * n,0,0 -> 0,0,1 : lock, uncontended
	 * *,0,0 -> *,0,1 : lock, contended
474
475
476
477
	 *
	 * If the queue head is the only one in the queue (lock value == tail),
	 * clear the tail code and grab the lock. Otherwise, we only need
	 * to grab the lock.
478
479
	 */
	for (;;) {
480
481
		/* In the PV case we might already have _Q_LOCKED_VAL set */
		if ((val & _Q_TAIL_MASK) != tail) {
482
			set_locked(lock);
483
			break;
484
		}
485
		/*
486
487
488
		 * The smp_cond_load_acquire() call above has provided the
		 * necessary acquire semantics required for locking. At most
		 * two iterations of this loop may be ran.
489
490
		 */
		old = atomic_cmpxchg_relaxed(&lock->val, val, _Q_LOCKED_VAL);
491
492
		if (old == val)
			goto release;	/* No contention */
493
494
495
496
497

		val = old;
	}

	/*
498
	 * contended path; wait for next if not observed yet, release.
499
	 */
500
501
502
503
	if (!next) {
		while (!(next = READ_ONCE(node->next)))
			cpu_relax();
	}
504

505
	arch_mcs_spin_unlock_contended(&next->locked);
506
	pv_kick_node(lock, next);
507
508
509
510
511

release:
	/*
	 * release the node
	 */
512
	__this_cpu_dec(mcs_nodes[0].count);
513
514
}
EXPORT_SYMBOL(queued_spin_lock_slowpath);
515
516
517
518
519
520
521
522
523
524
525
526
527

/*
 * Generate the paravirt code for queued_spin_unlock_slowpath().
 */
#if !defined(_GEN_PV_LOCK_SLOWPATH) && defined(CONFIG_PARAVIRT_SPINLOCKS)
#define _GEN_PV_LOCK_SLOWPATH

#undef  pv_enabled
#define pv_enabled()	true

#undef pv_init_node
#undef pv_wait_node
#undef pv_kick_node
528
#undef pv_wait_head_or_lock
529
530
531
532
533
534
535
536

#undef  queued_spin_lock_slowpath
#define queued_spin_lock_slowpath	__pv_queued_spin_lock_slowpath

#include "qspinlock_paravirt.h"
#include "qspinlock.c"

#endif