Commit 3d083395 authored by Steven Rostedt's avatar Steven Rostedt Committed by Thomas Gleixner
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ftrace: dynamic enabling/disabling of function calls



This patch adds a feature to dynamically replace the ftrace code
with the jmps to allow a kernel with ftrace configured to run
as fast as it can without it configured.

The way this works, is on bootup (if ftrace is enabled), a ftrace
function is registered to record the instruction pointer of all
places that call the function.

Later, if there's still any code to patch, a kthread is awoken
(rate limited to at most once a second) that performs a stop_machine,
and replaces all the code that was called with a jmp over the call
to ftrace. It only replaces what was found the previous time. Typically
the system reaches equilibrium quickly after bootup and there's no code
patching needed at all.

e.g.

  call ftrace  /* 5 bytes */

is replaced with

  jmp 3f  /* jmp is 2 bytes and we jump 3 forward */
3:

When we want to enable ftrace for function tracing, the IP recording
is removed, and stop_machine is called again to replace all the locations
of that were recorded back to the call of ftrace.  When it is disabled,
we replace the code back to the jmp.

Allocation is done by the kthread. If the ftrace recording function is
called, and we don't have any record slots available, then we simply
skip that call. Once a second a new page (if needed) is allocated for
recording new ftrace function calls.  A large batch is allocated at
boot up to get most of the calls there.

Because we do this via stop_machine, we don't have to worry about another
CPU executing a ftrace call as we modify it. But we do need to worry
about NMI's so all functions that might be called via nmi must be
annotated with notrace_nmi. When this code is configured in, the NMI code
will not call notrace.
Signed-off-by: default avatarSteven Rostedt <srostedt@redhat.com>
Signed-off-by: default avatarIngo Molnar <mingo@elte.hu>
Signed-off-by: default avatarThomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>
parent 6cd8a4bb
......@@ -56,6 +56,7 @@ obj-$(CONFIG_X86_MPPARSE) += mpparse.o
obj-$(CONFIG_X86_LOCAL_APIC) += apic_$(BITS).o nmi_$(BITS).o
obj-$(CONFIG_X86_IO_APIC) += io_apic_$(BITS).o
obj-$(CONFIG_X86_REBOOTFIXUPS) += reboot_fixups_32.o
obj-$(CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE) += ftrace.o
obj-$(CONFIG_KEXEC) += machine_kexec_$(BITS).o
obj-$(CONFIG_KEXEC) += relocate_kernel_$(BITS).o crash.o
obj-$(CONFIG_CRASH_DUMP) += crash_dump_$(BITS).o
......
/*
* Code for replacing ftrace calls with jumps.
*
* Copyright (C) 2007-2008 Steven Rostedt <srostedt@redhat.com>
*
* Thanks goes to Ingo Molnar, for suggesting the idea.
* Mathieu Desnoyers, for suggesting postponing the modifications.
* Arjan van de Ven, for keeping me straight, and explaining to me
* the dangers of modifying code on the run.
*/
#include <linux/spinlock.h>
#include <linux/hardirq.h>
#include <linux/ftrace.h>
#include <linux/percpu.h>
#include <linux/init.h>
#include <linux/list.h>
#define CALL_BACK 5
#define JMPFWD 0x03eb
static unsigned short ftrace_jmp = JMPFWD;
struct ftrace_record {
struct dyn_ftrace rec;
int failed;
} __attribute__((packed));
struct ftrace_page {
struct ftrace_page *next;
int index;
struct ftrace_record records[];
} __attribute__((packed));
#define ENTRIES_PER_PAGE \
((PAGE_SIZE - sizeof(struct ftrace_page)) / sizeof(struct ftrace_record))
/* estimate from running different kernels */
#define NR_TO_INIT 10000
#define MCOUNT_ADDR ((long)(&mcount))
union ftrace_code_union {
char code[5];
struct {
char e8;
int offset;
} __attribute__((packed));
};
static struct ftrace_page *ftrace_pages_start;
static struct ftrace_page *ftrace_pages;
notrace struct dyn_ftrace *ftrace_alloc_shutdown_node(unsigned long ip)
{
struct ftrace_record *rec;
unsigned short save;
ip -= CALL_BACK;
save = *(short *)ip;
/* If this was already converted, skip it */
if (save == JMPFWD)
return NULL;
if (ftrace_pages->index == ENTRIES_PER_PAGE) {
if (!ftrace_pages->next)
return NULL;
ftrace_pages = ftrace_pages->next;
}
rec = &ftrace_pages->records[ftrace_pages->index++];
return &rec->rec;
}
static int notrace
ftrace_modify_code(unsigned long ip, unsigned char *old_code,
unsigned char *new_code)
{
unsigned short old = *(unsigned short *)old_code;
unsigned short new = *(unsigned short *)new_code;
unsigned short replaced;
int faulted = 0;
/*
* Note: Due to modules and __init, code can
* disappear and change, we need to protect against faulting
* as well as code changing.
*
* No real locking needed, this code is run through
* kstop_machine.
*/
asm volatile (
"1: lock\n"
" cmpxchg %w3, (%2)\n"
"2:\n"
".section .fixup, \"ax\"\n"
" movl $1, %0\n"
"3: jmp 2b\n"
".previous\n"
_ASM_EXTABLE(1b, 3b)
: "=r"(faulted), "=a"(replaced)
: "r"(ip), "r"(new), "0"(faulted), "a"(old)
: "memory");
sync_core();
if (replaced != old)
faulted = 2;
return faulted;
}
static int notrace ftrace_calc_offset(long ip)
{
return (int)(MCOUNT_ADDR - ip);
}
notrace void ftrace_code_disable(struct dyn_ftrace *rec)
{
unsigned long ip;
union ftrace_code_union save;
struct ftrace_record *r =
container_of(rec, struct ftrace_record, rec);
ip = rec->ip;
save.e8 = 0xe8;
save.offset = ftrace_calc_offset(ip);
/* move the IP back to the start of the call */
ip -= CALL_BACK;
r->failed = ftrace_modify_code(ip, save.code, (char *)&ftrace_jmp);
}
static void notrace ftrace_replace_code(int saved)
{
unsigned char *new = NULL, *old = NULL;
struct ftrace_record *rec;
struct ftrace_page *pg;
unsigned long ip;
int i;
if (saved)
old = (char *)&ftrace_jmp;
else
new = (char *)&ftrace_jmp;
for (pg = ftrace_pages_start; pg; pg = pg->next) {
for (i = 0; i < pg->index; i++) {
union ftrace_code_union calc;
rec = &pg->records[i];
/* don't modify code that has already faulted */
if (rec->failed)
continue;
ip = rec->rec.ip;
calc.e8 = 0xe8;
calc.offset = ftrace_calc_offset(ip);
if (saved)
new = calc.code;
else
old = calc.code;
ip -= CALL_BACK;
rec->failed = ftrace_modify_code(ip, old, new);
}
}
}
notrace void ftrace_startup_code(void)
{
ftrace_replace_code(1);
}
notrace void ftrace_shutdown_code(void)
{
ftrace_replace_code(0);
}
notrace void ftrace_shutdown_replenish(void)
{
if (ftrace_pages->next)
return;
/* allocate another page */
ftrace_pages->next = (void *)get_zeroed_page(GFP_KERNEL);
}
notrace int ftrace_shutdown_arch_init(void)
{
struct ftrace_page *pg;
int cnt;
int i;
/* allocate a few pages */
ftrace_pages_start = (void *)get_zeroed_page(GFP_KERNEL);
if (!ftrace_pages_start)
return -1;
/*
* Allocate a few more pages.
*
* TODO: have some parser search vmlinux before
* final linking to find all calls to ftrace.
* Then we can:
* a) know how many pages to allocate.
* and/or
* b) set up the table then.
*
* The dynamic code is still necessary for
* modules.
*/
pg = ftrace_pages = ftrace_pages_start;
cnt = NR_TO_INIT / ENTRIES_PER_PAGE;
for (i = 0; i < cnt; i++) {
pg->next = (void *)get_zeroed_page(GFP_KERNEL);
/* If we fail, we'll try later anyway */
if (!pg->next)
break;
pg = pg->next;
}
return 0;
}
......@@ -32,6 +32,24 @@ extern void mcount(void);
# define clear_ftrace_function(ops) do { } while (0)
#endif /* CONFIG_FTRACE */
#ifdef CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE
# define FTRACE_HASHBITS 10
# define FTRACE_HASHSIZE (1<<FTRACE_HASHBITS)
struct dyn_ftrace {
struct hlist_node node;
unsigned long ip;
};
/* defined in arch */
extern struct dyn_ftrace *
ftrace_alloc_shutdown_node(unsigned long ip);
extern int ftrace_shutdown_arch_init(void);
extern void ftrace_code_disable(struct dyn_ftrace *rec);
extern void ftrace_startup_code(void);
extern void ftrace_shutdown_code(void);
extern void ftrace_shutdown_replenish(void);
#endif
#ifdef CONFIG_FRAME_POINTER
/* TODO: need to fix this for ARM */
......
......@@ -88,3 +88,20 @@ config CONTEXT_SWITCH_TRACER
This tracer gets called from the context switch and records
all switching of tasks.
config DYNAMIC_FTRACE
bool "enable/disable ftrace tracepoints dynamically"
depends on FTRACE
default y
help
This option will modify all the calls to ftrace dynamically
(will patch them out of the binary image and replaces them
with a No-Op instruction) as they are called. A table is
created to dynamically enable them again.
This way a CONFIG_FTRACE kernel is slightly larger, but otherwise
has native performance as long as no tracing is active.
The changes to the code are done by a kernel thread that
wakes up once a second and checks to see if any ftrace calls
were made. If so, it runs stop_machine (stops all CPUS)
and modifies the code to jump over the call to ftrace.
......@@ -13,10 +13,19 @@
* Copyright (C) 2004 William Lee Irwin III
*/
#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/stop_machine.h>
#include <linux/clocksource.h>
#include <linux/kallsyms.h>
#include <linux/kthread.h>
#include <linux/hardirq.h>
#include <linux/ftrace.h>
#include <linux/module.h>
#include <linux/hash.h>
#include <linux/list.h>
#include "trace.h"
static DEFINE_SPINLOCK(ftrace_func_lock);
static DEFINE_SPINLOCK(ftrace_lock);
static struct ftrace_ops ftrace_list_end __read_mostly =
{
.func = ftrace_stub,
......@@ -44,21 +53,21 @@ notrace void ftrace_list_func(unsigned long ip, unsigned long parent_ip)
}
/**
* register_ftrace_function - register a function for profiling
* @ops - ops structure that holds the function for profiling.
*
* Register a function to be called by all functions in the
* kernel.
* clear_ftrace_function - reset the ftrace function
*
* Note: @ops->func and all the functions it calls must be labeled
* with "notrace", otherwise it will go into a
* recursive loop.
* This NULLs the ftrace function and in essence stops
* tracing. There may be lag
*/
int register_ftrace_function(struct ftrace_ops *ops)
void clear_ftrace_function(void)
{
unsigned long flags;
ftrace_trace_function = ftrace_stub;
}
static int notrace __register_ftrace_function(struct ftrace_ops *ops)
{
/* Should never be called by interrupts */
spin_lock(&ftrace_lock);
spin_lock_irqsave(&ftrace_func_lock, flags);
ops->next = ftrace_list;
/*
* We are entering ops into the ftrace_list but another
......@@ -68,6 +77,7 @@ int register_ftrace_function(struct ftrace_ops *ops)
*/
smp_wmb();
ftrace_list = ops;
/*
* For one func, simply call it directly.
* For more than one func, call the chain.
......@@ -76,28 +86,22 @@ int register_ftrace_function(struct ftrace_ops *ops)
ftrace_trace_function = ops->func;
else
ftrace_trace_function = ftrace_list_func;
spin_unlock_irqrestore(&ftrace_func_lock, flags);
spin_unlock(&ftrace_lock);
return 0;
}
/**
* unregister_ftrace_function - unresgister a function for profiling.
* @ops - ops structure that holds the function to unregister
*
* Unregister a function that was added to be called by ftrace profiling.
*/
int unregister_ftrace_function(struct ftrace_ops *ops)
static int notrace __unregister_ftrace_function(struct ftrace_ops *ops)
{
unsigned long flags;
struct ftrace_ops **p;
int ret = 0;
spin_lock_irqsave(&ftrace_func_lock, flags);
spin_lock(&ftrace_lock);
/*
* If we are the only function, then the ftrace pointer is
* pointing directly to that function.
* If we are removing the last function, then simply point
* to the ftrace_stub.
*/
if (ftrace_list == ops && ops->next == &ftrace_list_end) {
ftrace_trace_function = ftrace_stub;
......@@ -117,22 +121,310 @@ int unregister_ftrace_function(struct ftrace_ops *ops)
*p = (*p)->next;
/* If we only have one func left, then call that directly */
if (ftrace_list->next == &ftrace_list_end)
if (ftrace_list == &ftrace_list_end ||
ftrace_list->next == &ftrace_list_end)
ftrace_trace_function = ftrace_list->func;
out:
spin_unlock_irqrestore(&ftrace_func_lock, flags);
spin_unlock(&ftrace_lock);
return ret;
}
#ifdef CONFIG_DYNAMIC_FTRACE
static struct hlist_head ftrace_hash[FTRACE_HASHSIZE];
static DEFINE_PER_CPU(int, ftrace_shutdown_disable_cpu);
static DEFINE_SPINLOCK(ftrace_shutdown_lock);
static DEFINE_MUTEX(ftraced_lock);
static int ftraced_trigger;
static int ftraced_suspend;
static int ftrace_record_suspend;
static inline int
notrace ftrace_ip_in_hash(unsigned long ip, unsigned long key)
{
struct dyn_ftrace *p;
struct hlist_node *t;
int found = 0;
hlist_for_each_entry(p, t, &ftrace_hash[key], node) {
if (p->ip == ip) {
found = 1;
break;
}
}
return found;
}
static inline void notrace
ftrace_add_hash(struct dyn_ftrace *node, unsigned long key)
{
hlist_add_head(&node->node, &ftrace_hash[key]);
}
static void notrace
ftrace_record_ip(unsigned long ip, unsigned long parent_ip)
{
struct dyn_ftrace *node;
unsigned long flags;
unsigned long key;
int resched;
int atomic;
resched = need_resched();
preempt_disable_notrace();
/* We simply need to protect against recursion */
__get_cpu_var(ftrace_shutdown_disable_cpu)++;
if (__get_cpu_var(ftrace_shutdown_disable_cpu) != 1)
goto out;
if (unlikely(ftrace_record_suspend))
goto out;
key = hash_long(ip, FTRACE_HASHBITS);
WARN_ON_ONCE(key >= FTRACE_HASHSIZE);
if (ftrace_ip_in_hash(ip, key))
goto out;
atomic = irqs_disabled();
spin_lock_irqsave(&ftrace_shutdown_lock, flags);
/* This ip may have hit the hash before the lock */
if (ftrace_ip_in_hash(ip, key))
goto out_unlock;
/*
* There's a slight race that the ftraced will update the
* hash and reset here. The arch alloc is responsible
* for seeing if the IP has already changed, and if
* it has, the alloc will fail.
*/
node = ftrace_alloc_shutdown_node(ip);
if (!node)
goto out_unlock;
node->ip = ip;
ftrace_add_hash(node, key);
ftraced_trigger = 1;
out_unlock:
spin_unlock_irqrestore(&ftrace_shutdown_lock, flags);
out:
__get_cpu_var(ftrace_shutdown_disable_cpu)--;
/* prevent recursion with scheduler */
if (resched)
preempt_enable_no_resched_notrace();
else
preempt_enable_notrace();
}
static struct ftrace_ops ftrace_shutdown_ops __read_mostly =
{
.func = ftrace_record_ip,
};
static int notrace __ftrace_modify_code(void *data)
{
void (*func)(void) = data;
func();
return 0;
}
static void notrace ftrace_run_startup_code(void)
{
stop_machine_run(__ftrace_modify_code, ftrace_startup_code, NR_CPUS);
}
static void notrace ftrace_run_shutdown_code(void)
{
stop_machine_run(__ftrace_modify_code, ftrace_shutdown_code, NR_CPUS);
}
static void notrace ftrace_startup(void)
{
mutex_lock(&ftraced_lock);
ftraced_suspend++;
if (ftraced_suspend != 1)
goto out;
__unregister_ftrace_function(&ftrace_shutdown_ops);
ftrace_run_startup_code();
out:
mutex_unlock(&ftraced_lock);
}
static void notrace ftrace_shutdown(void)
{
mutex_lock(&ftraced_lock);
ftraced_suspend--;
if (ftraced_suspend)
goto out;
ftrace_run_shutdown_code();
__register_ftrace_function(&ftrace_shutdown_ops);
out:
mutex_unlock(&ftraced_lock);
}
static cycle_t ftrace_update_time;
static unsigned long ftrace_update_cnt;
unsigned long ftrace_update_tot_cnt;
static int notrace __ftrace_update_code(void *ignore)
{
struct dyn_ftrace *p;
struct hlist_head head;
struct hlist_node *t;
cycle_t start, stop;
int i;
/* Don't be calling ftrace ops now */
__unregister_ftrace_function(&ftrace_shutdown_ops);
start = now(raw_smp_processor_id());
ftrace_update_cnt = 0;
/* No locks needed, the machine is stopped! */
for (i = 0; i < FTRACE_HASHSIZE; i++) {
if (hlist_empty(&ftrace_hash[i]))
continue;
head = ftrace_hash[i];
INIT_HLIST_HEAD(&ftrace_hash[i]);
/* all CPUS are stopped, we are safe to modify code */
hlist_for_each_entry(p, t, &head, node) {
ftrace_code_disable(p);
ftrace_update_cnt++;
}
}
stop = now(raw_smp_processor_id());
ftrace_update_time = stop - start;
ftrace_update_tot_cnt += ftrace_update_cnt;
__register_ftrace_function(&ftrace_shutdown_ops);
return 0;
}
static void notrace ftrace_update_code(void)
{
stop_machine_run(__ftrace_update_code, NULL, NR_CPUS);
}
static int notrace ftraced(void *ignore)
{
unsigned long usecs;
set_current_state(TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE);
while (!kthread_should_stop()) {
/* check once a second */
schedule_timeout(HZ);
mutex_lock(&ftraced_lock);
if (ftraced_trigger && !ftraced_suspend) {
ftrace_record_suspend++;
ftrace_update_code();
usecs = nsecs_to_usecs(ftrace_update_time);
if (ftrace_update_tot_cnt > 100000) {
ftrace_update_tot_cnt = 0;
pr_info("hm, dftrace overflow: %lu change%s"
" (%lu total) in %lu usec%s\n",
ftrace_update_cnt,
ftrace_update_cnt != 1 ? "s" : "",
ftrace_update_tot_cnt,
usecs, usecs != 1 ? "s" : "");
WARN_ON_ONCE(1);
}
ftraced_trigger = 0;
ftrace_record_suspend--;
}
mutex_unlock(&ftraced_lock);
ftrace_shutdown_replenish();
set_current_state(TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE);
}