Commit 650fc870 authored by Linus Torvalds's avatar Linus Torvalds
Browse files

Merge tag 'docs-4.13' of git://

Pull documentation updates from Jonathan Corbet:
 "There has been a fair amount of activity in the docs tree this time
  around. Highlights include:

   - Conversion of a bunch of security documentation into RST

   - The conversion of the remaining DocBook templates by The Amazing
     Mauro Machine. We can now drop the entire DocBook build chain.

   - The usual collection of fixes and minor updates"

* tag 'docs-4.13' of git:// (90 commits)
  scripts/kernel-doc: handle DECLARE_HASHTABLE
  Documentation: atomic_ops.txt is core-api/atomic_ops.rst
  Docs: clean up some DocBook loose ends
  Make the main documentation title less Geocities
  Docs: Use kernel-figure in vidioc-g-selection.rst
  Docs: fix table problems in ras.rst
  Docs: Fix breakage with Sphinx 1.5 and upper
  Docs: Include the Latex "ifthen" package
  doc/kokr/howto: Only send regression fixes after -rc1
  docs-rst: fix broken links to dynamic-debug-howto in kernel-parameters
  doc: Document suitability of IBM Verse for kernel development
  Doc: fix a markup error in coding-style.rst
  docs: driver-api: i2c: remove some outdated information
  Documentation: DMA API: fix a typo in a function name
  Docs: Insert missing space to separate link from text
  doc/ko_KR/memory-barriers: Update control-dependencies example
  Documentation, kbuild: fix typo "minimun" -> "minimum"
  docs: Fix some formatting issues in request-key.rst
  doc: ReSTify keys-trusted-encrypted.txt
  doc: ReSTify keys-request-key.txt
parents f4dd029e 1cb566ba
......@@ -24,8 +24,6 @@ DMA-ISA-LPC.txt
- How to do DMA with ISA (and LPC) devices.
- listing of the various possible attributes a DMA region can have
- directory with DocBook templates etc. for kernel documentation.
- directory with info on customizing EDID for broken gfx/displays.
......@@ -40,8 +38,6 @@ Intel-IOMMU.txt
- basic info on the Intel IOMMU virtualization support.
- It's not of interest for those who aren't touching the build system.
- It's not of interest for those who aren't touching the build system.
- info related to PCI drivers.
......@@ -264,6 +260,8 @@ logo.gif
- full colour GIF image of Linux logo (penguin - Tux).
- info on creator of above logo & site to get additional images from.
- Linux Security Modules: General Security Hooks for Linux
- kernel LZO decompressor input formats
......@@ -692,7 +692,7 @@ of preallocated entries is defined per architecture. If it is too low for you
boot with 'dma_debug_entries=<your_desired_number>' to overwrite the
architectural default.
void debug_dmap_mapping_error(struct device *dev, dma_addr_t dma_addr);
void debug_dma_mapping_error(struct device *dev, dma_addr_t dma_addr);
dma-debug interface debug_dma_mapping_error() to debug drivers that fail
to check DMA mapping errors on addresses returned by dma_map_single() and
# This makefile is used to generate the kernel documentation,
# primarily based on in-line comments in various source files.
# See Documentation/kernel-doc-nano-HOWTO.txt for instruction in how
# to document the SRC - and how to read it.
# To add a new book the only step required is to add the book to the
# list of DOCBOOKS.
DOCBOOKS := z8530book.xml \
kernel-hacking.xml kernel-locking.xml \
networking.xml \
filesystems.xml lsm.xml kgdb.xml \
libata.xml mtdnand.xml librs.xml rapidio.xml \
s390-drivers.xml scsi.xml \
sh.xml w1.xml
ifeq ($(DOCBOOKS),)
# Skip DocBook build if the user explicitly requested no DOCBOOKS.
@echo " SKIP DocBook $@ target (DOCBOOKS=\"\" specified)."
ifneq ($(SPHINXDIRS),)
# Skip DocBook build if the user explicitly requested a sphinx dir
@echo " SKIP DocBook $@ target (SPHINXDIRS specified)."
# The build process is as follows (targets):
# (xmldocs) [by docproc]
# file.tmpl --> file.xml +--> (psdocs) [by db2ps or xmlto]
# +--> file.pdf (pdfdocs) [by db2pdf or xmlto]
# +--> DIR=file (htmldocs) [by xmlto]
# +--> man/ (mandocs) [by xmlto]
# for PDF and PS output you can choose between xmlto and docbook-utils tools
PDF_METHOD = $(prefer-db2x)
PS_METHOD = $(prefer-db2x)
targets += $(DOCBOOKS)
BOOKS := $(addprefix $(obj)/,$(DOCBOOKS))
xmldocs: $(BOOKS)
sgmldocs: xmldocs
PS := $(patsubst %.xml,, $(BOOKS))
psdocs: $(PS)
PDF := $(patsubst %.xml, %.pdf, $(BOOKS))
pdfdocs: $(PDF)
HTML := $(sort $(patsubst %.xml, %.html, $(BOOKS)))
htmldocs: $(HTML)
$(call cmd,build_main_index)
MAN := $(patsubst %.xml, %.9, $(BOOKS))
mandocs: $(MAN)
find $(obj)/man -name '*.9' | xargs gzip -nf
# Default location for installed man pages
export INSTALL_MAN_PATH = $(objtree)/usr
installmandocs: mandocs
mkdir -p $(INSTALL_MAN_PATH)/man/man9/
find $(obj)/man -name '*.9.gz' -printf '%h %f\n' | \
sort -k 2 -k 1 | uniq -f 1 | sed -e 's: :/:' | \
xargs install -m 644 -t $(INSTALL_MAN_PATH)/man/man9/
# no-op for the DocBook toolchain
#External programs used
KERNELDOCXMLREF = $(srctree)/scripts/kernel-doc-xml-ref
KERNELDOC = $(srctree)/scripts/kernel-doc
DOCPROC = $(objtree)/scripts/docproc
CHECK_LC_CTYPE = $(objtree)/scripts/check-lc_ctype
# Use a fixed encoding - UTF-8 if the C library has support built-in
# or ASCII if not
LC_CTYPE := $(call try-run, LC_CTYPE=C.UTF-8 $(CHECK_LC_CTYPE),C.UTF-8,C)
export LC_CTYPE
XMLTOFLAGS = -m $(srctree)/$(src)/stylesheet.xsl
XMLTOFLAGS += --skip-validation
# DOCPROC is used for two purposes:
# 1) To generate a dependency list for a .tmpl file
# 2) To preprocess a .tmpl file and call kernel-doc with
# appropriate parameters.
# The following rules are used to generate the .xml documentation
# required to generate the final targets. (ps, pdf, html).
quiet_cmd_docproc = DOCPROC $@
cmd_docproc = SRCTREE=$(srctree)/ $(DOCPROC) doc $< >$@
define rule_docproc
set -e; \
$(if $($(quiet)cmd_$(1)),echo ' $($(quiet)cmd_$(1))';) \
$(cmd_$(1)); \
( \
echo 'cmd_$@ := $(cmd_$(1))'; \
echo $@: `SRCTREE=$(srctree) $(DOCPROC) depend $<`; \
) > $(dir $@).$(notdir $@).cmd
$(call if_changed_rule,docproc)
# Tell kbuild to always build the programs
always := $(hostprogs-y)
notfoundtemplate = echo "*** You have to install docbook-utils or xmlto ***"; \
exit 1
db2xtemplate = db2TYPE -o $(dir $@) $<
xmltotemplate = xmlto TYPE $(XMLTOFLAGS) -o $(dir $@) $<
# determine which methods are available
ifeq ($(shell which db2ps >/dev/null 2>&1 && echo found),found)
use-db2x = db2x
prefer-db2x = db2x
use-db2x = notfound
prefer-db2x = $(use-xmlto)
ifeq ($(shell which xmlto >/dev/null 2>&1 && echo found),found)
use-xmlto = xmlto
prefer-xmlto = xmlto
use-xmlto = notfound
prefer-xmlto = $(use-db2x)
# the commands, generated from the chosen template
quiet_cmd_db2ps = PS $@
cmd_db2ps = $(subst TYPE,ps, $($(PS_METHOD)template)) : %.xml
$(call cmd,db2ps)
quiet_cmd_db2pdf = PDF $@
cmd_db2pdf = $(subst TYPE,pdf, $($(PDF_METHOD)template))
%.pdf : %.xml
$(call cmd,db2pdf)
index = index.html
main_idx = $(obj)/$(index)
quiet_cmd_build_main_index = HTML $(main_idx)
cmd_build_main_index = rm -rf $(main_idx); \
echo '<h1>Linux Kernel HTML Documentation</h1>' >> $(main_idx) && \
echo '<h2>Kernel Version: $(KERNELVERSION)</h2>' >> $(main_idx) && \
cat $(HTML) >> $(main_idx)
quiet_cmd_db2html = HTML $@
cmd_db2html = xmlto html $(XMLTOFLAGS) -o $(patsubst %.html,%,$@) $< && \
echo '<a HREF="$(patsubst %.html,%,$(notdir $@))/index.html"> \
$(patsubst %.html,%,$(notdir $@))</a><p>' > $@
# Rules to create an aux XML and .db, and use them to re-process the DocBook XML
# to fill internal hyperlinks
gen_aux_xml = :
quiet_gen_aux_xml = echo ' XMLREF $@'
silent_gen_aux_xml = :
%.aux.xml: %.xml
@rm -rf $@
@(cat $< | egrep "^<refentry id" | egrep -o "\".*\"" | cut -f 2 -d \" > $<.db)
@$(KERNELDOCXMLREF) -db $<.db $< > $@
.PRECIOUS: %.aux.xml
%.html: %.aux.xml
@(which xmlto > /dev/null 2>&1) || \
(echo "*** You need to install xmlto ***"; \
exit 1)
@rm -rf $@ $(patsubst %.html,%,$@)
$(call cmd,db2html)
@if [ ! -z "$(PNG-$(basename $(notdir $@)))" ]; then \
cp $(PNG-$(basename $(notdir $@))) $(patsubst %.html,%,$@); fi
quiet_cmd_db2man = MAN $@
cmd_db2man = if grep -q refentry $<; then xmlto man $(XMLTOFLAGS) -o $(obj)/man/$(*F) $< ; fi
%.9 : %.xml
@(which xmlto > /dev/null 2>&1) || \
(echo "*** You need to install xmlto ***"; \
exit 1)
$(Q)mkdir -p $(obj)/man/$(*F)
$(call cmd,db2man)
@touch $@
# Rules to generate postscripts and PNG images from .fig format files
quiet_cmd_fig2eps = FIG2EPS $@
cmd_fig2eps = fig2dev -Leps $< $@
%.eps: %.fig
@(which fig2dev > /dev/null 2>&1) || \
(echo "*** You need to install transfig ***"; \
exit 1)
$(call cmd,fig2eps)
quiet_cmd_fig2png = FIG2PNG $@
cmd_fig2png = fig2dev -Lpng $< $@
%.png: %.fig
@(which fig2dev > /dev/null 2>&1) || \
(echo "*** You need to install transfig ***"; \
exit 1)
$(call cmd,fig2png)
# Rule to convert a .c file to inline XML documentation
gen_xml = :
quiet_gen_xml = echo ' GEN $@'
silent_gen_xml = :
%.xml: %.c
@( \
echo "<programlisting>"; \
expand --tabs=8 < $< | \
sed -e "s/&/\\&amp;/g" \
-e "s/</\\&lt;/g" \
-e "s/>/\\&gt;/g"; \
echo "</programlisting>") > $@
endif # DOCBOOKS=""
endif # SPHINDIR=...
# Help targets as used by the top-level makefile
@echo ' Linux kernel internal documentation in different formats (DocBook):'
@echo ' htmldocs - HTML'
@echo ' pdfdocs - PDF'
@echo ' psdocs - Postscript'
@echo ' xmldocs - XML DocBook'
@echo ' mandocs - man pages'
@echo ' installmandocs - install man pages generated by mandocs to INSTALL_MAN_PATH'; \
echo ' (default: $(INSTALL_MAN_PATH))'; \
echo ''
@echo ' cleandocs - clean all generated DocBook files'
@echo ' make DOCBOOKS="s1.xml s2.xml" [target] Generate only docs s1.xml s2.xml'
@echo ' valid values for DOCBOOKS are: $(DOCBOOKS)'
@echo " make DOCBOOKS=\"\" [target] Don't generate docs from Docbook"
@echo ' This is useful to generate only the ReST docs (Sphinx)'
# Temporary files left by various tools
clean-files := $(DOCBOOKS) \
$(patsubst %.xml, %.dvi, $(DOCBOOKS)) \
$(patsubst %.xml, %.aux, $(DOCBOOKS)) \
$(patsubst %.xml, %.tex, $(DOCBOOKS)) \
$(patsubst %.xml, %.log, $(DOCBOOKS)) \
$(patsubst %.xml, %.out, $(DOCBOOKS)) \
$(patsubst %.xml,, $(DOCBOOKS)) \
$(patsubst %.xml, %.pdf, $(DOCBOOKS)) \
$(patsubst %.xml, %.html, $(DOCBOOKS)) \
$(patsubst %.xml, %.9, $(DOCBOOKS)) \
$(patsubst %.xml, %.aux.xml, $(DOCBOOKS)) \
$(patsubst %.xml, %.xml.db, $(DOCBOOKS)) \
$(patsubst %.xml, %.xml, $(DOCBOOKS)) \
$(patsubst %.xml, .%.xml.cmd, $(DOCBOOKS)) \
clean-dirs := $(patsubst %.xml,%,$(DOCBOOKS)) man
$(Q)rm -f $(call objectify, $(clean-files))
$(Q)rm -rf $(call objectify, $(clean-dirs))
# Declare the contents of the .PHONY variable as phony. We keep that
# information in a variable so we can use it in if_changed and friends.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE book PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DocBook XML V4.1.2//EN"
"" []>
<book id="Linux-filesystems-API">
<title>Linux Filesystems API</title>
This documentation is free software; you can redistribute
it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public
License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be
useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied
See the GNU General Public License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public
License along with this program; if not, write to the Free
Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston,
MA 02111-1307 USA
For more details see the file COPYING in the source
distribution of Linux.
<chapter id="vfs">
<title>The Linux VFS</title>
<sect1 id="the_filesystem_types"><title>The Filesystem types</title>
<sect1 id="the_directory_cache"><title>The Directory Cache</title>
<sect1 id="inode_handling"><title>Inode Handling</title>
<sect1 id="registration_and_superblocks"><title>Registration and Superblocks</title>
<sect1 id="file_locks"><title>File Locks</title>
<sect1 id="other_functions"><title>Other Functions</title>
<chapter id="proc">
<title>The proc filesystem</title>
<sect1 id="sysctl_interface"><title>sysctl interface</title>
<sect1 id="proc_filesystem_interface"><title>proc filesystem interface</title>
<chapter id="fs_events">
<title>Events based on file descriptors</title>
<chapter id="sysfs">
<title>The Filesystem for Exporting Kernel Objects</title>
<chapter id="debugfs">
<title>The debugfs filesystem</title>
<sect1 id="debugfs_interface"><title>debugfs interface</title>
<chapter id="LinuxJDBAPI">
<title>The Linux Journalling API</title>
<holder>Roger Gammans</holder>
<title>The Linux Journalling API</title>
<sect1 id="journaling_overview">
<sect2 id="journaling_details">
The journalling layer is easy to use. You need to
first of all create a journal_t data structure. There are
two calls to do this dependent on how you decide to allocate the physical
media on which the journal resides. The jbd2_journal_init_inode() call
is for journals stored in filesystem inodes, or the jbd2_journal_init_dev()
call can be used for journal stored on a raw device (in a continuous range
of blocks). A journal_t is a typedef for a struct pointer, so when
you are finally finished make sure you call jbd2_journal_destroy() on it
to free up any used kernel memory.
Once you have got your journal_t object you need to 'mount' or load the journal
file. The journalling layer expects the space for the journal was already
allocated and initialized properly by the userspace tools. When loading the
journal you must call jbd2_journal_load() to process journal contents. If the
client file system detects the journal contents does not need to be processed
(or even need not have valid contents), it may call jbd2_journal_wipe() to
clear the journal contents before calling jbd2_journal_load().
Note that jbd2_journal_wipe(..,0) calls jbd2_journal_skip_recovery() for you if
it detects any outstanding transactions in the journal and similarly
jbd2_journal_load() will call jbd2_journal_recover() if necessary. I would
advise reading ext4_load_journal() in fs/ext4/super.c for examples on this
Now you can go ahead and start modifying the underlying
filesystem. Almost.
You still need to actually journal your filesystem changes, this
is done by wrapping them into transactions. Additionally you
also need to wrap the modification of each of the buffers
with calls to the journal layer, so it knows what the modifications
you are actually making are. To do this use jbd2_journal_start() which
returns a transaction handle.
and its counterpart jbd2_journal_stop(), which indicates the end of a
transaction are nestable calls, so you can reenter a transaction if necessary,
but remember you must call jbd2_journal_stop() the same number of times as
jbd2_journal_start() before the transaction is completed (or more accurately
leaves the update phase). Ext4/VFS makes use of this feature to simplify
handling of inode dirtying, quota support, etc.
Inside each transaction you need to wrap the modifications to the
individual buffers (blocks). Before you start to modify a buffer you
need to call jbd2_journal_get_{create,write,undo}_access() as appropriate,
this allows the journalling layer to copy the unmodified data if it
needs to. After all the buffer may be part of a previously uncommitted
At this point you are at last ready to modify a buffer, and once
you are have done so you need to call jbd2_journal_dirty_{meta,}data().
Or if you've asked for access to a buffer you now know is now longer
required to be pushed back on the device you can call jbd2_journal_forget()
in much the same way as you might have used bforget() in the past.
A jbd2_journal_flush() may be called at any time to commit and checkpoint
all your transactions.
Then at umount time , in your put_super() you can then call jbd2_journal_destroy()
to clean up your in-core journal object.
Unfortunately there a couple of ways the journal layer can cause a deadlock.
The first thing to note is that each task can only have
a single outstanding transaction at any one time, remember nothing
commits until the outermost jbd2_journal_stop(). This means
you must complete the transaction at the end of each file/inode/address
etc. operation you perform, so that the journalling system isn't re-entered
on another journal. Since transactions can't be nested/batched
across differing journals, and another filesystem other than
yours (say ext4) may be modified in a later syscall.
The second case to bear in mind is that jbd2_journal_start() can
block if there isn't enough space in the journal for your transaction
(based on the passed nblocks param) - when it blocks it merely(!) needs to
wait for transactions to complete and be committed from other tasks,
so essentially we are waiting for jbd2_journal_stop(). So to avoid
deadlocks you must treat jbd2_journal_start/stop() as if they
were semaphores and include them in your semaphore ordering rules to prevent
deadlocks. Note that jbd2_journal_extend() has similar blocking behaviour to
jbd2_journal_start() so you can deadlock here just as easily as on
Try to reserve the right number of blocks the first time. ;-). This will
be the maximum number of blocks you are going to touch in this transaction.
I advise having a look at at least ext4_jbd.h to see the basis on which
ext4 uses to make these decisions.
Another wriggle to watch out for is your on-disk block allocation strategy.
Why? Because, if you do a delete, you need to ensure you haven't reused any
of the freed blocks until the transaction freeing these blocks commits. If you
reused these blocks and crash happens, there is no way to restore the contents
of the reallocated blocks at the end of the last fully committed transaction.
One simple way of doing this is to mark blocks as free in internal in-memory
block allocation structures only after the transaction freeing them commits.
Ext4 uses journal commit callback for this purpose.
With journal commit callbacks you can ask the journalling layer to call a
callback function when the transaction is finally committed to disk, so that
you can do some of your own management. You ask the journalling layer for
calling the callback by simply setting journal->j_commit_callback function
pointer and that function is called after each transaction commit. You can also
use transaction->t_private_list for attaching entries to a transaction that
need processing when the transaction commits.
JBD2 also provides a way to block all transaction updates via
jbd2_journal_{un,}lock_updates(). Ext4 uses this when it wants a window with a
clean and stable fs for a moment. E.g.
jbd2_journal_lock_updates() //stop new stuff happening..
jbd2_journal_flush() // checkpoint everything. stuff on stable fs
jbd2_journal_unlock_updates() // carry on with filesystem use.
The opportunities for abuse and DOS attacks with this should be obvious,
if you allow unprivileged userspace to trigger codepaths containing these