Commit aea415b1 authored by Marcos Paulo de Souza's avatar Marcos Paulo de Souza Committed by Dmitry Torokhov
Browse files

Input: add uinput documentation



Add description of uinput module with a few examples.
Signed-off-by: default avatarMarcos Paulo de Souza <marcos.souza.org@gmail.com>
Signed-off-by: default avatarDmitry Torokhov <dmitry.torokhov@gmail.com>
parent 1613976b
......@@ -18,4 +18,5 @@ Linux Input Subsystem userspace API
gamepad
ff
joydev/index
uinput
userio
=============
uinput module
=============
Introduction
============
uinput is a kernel module that makes it possible to emulate input devices
from userspace. By writing to /dev/uinput (or /dev/input/uinput) device, a
process can create a virtual input device with specific capabilities. Once
this virtual device is created, the process can send events through it,
that will be delivered to userspace and in-kernel consumers.
Interface
=========
::
linux/uinput.h
The uinput header defines ioctls to create, set up, and destroy virtual
devices.
libevdev
========
libevdev is a wrapper library for evdev devices that provides interfaces to
create uinput devices and send events. libevdev is less error-prone than
accessing uinput directly, and should be considered for new software.
For examples and more information about libevdev:
https://www.freedesktop.org/software/libevdev/doc/latest/
Examples
========
Keyboard events
---------------
This first example shows how to create a new virtual device, and how to
send a key event. All default imports and error handlers were removed for
the sake of simplicity.
.. code-block:: c
#include <linux/uinput.h>
void emit(int fd, int type, int code, int val)
{
struct input_event ie;
ie.type = type;
ie.code = code;
ie.value = val;
/* timestamp values below are ignored */
ie.time.tv_sec = 0;
ie.time.tv_usec = 0;
write(fd, &ie, sizeof(ie));
}
int main(void)
{
struct uinput_setup usetup;
int fd = open("/dev/uinput", O_WRONLY | O_NONBLOCK);
/*
* The ioctls below will enable the device that is about to be
* created, to pass key events, in this case the space key.
*/
ioctl(fd, UI_SET_EVBIT, EV_KEY);
ioctl(fd, UI_SET_KEYBIT, KEY_SPACE);
memset(&usetup, 0, sizeof(usetup));
usetup.id.bustype = BUS_USB;
usetup.id.vendor = 0x1234; /* sample vendor */
usetup.id.product = 0x5678; /* sample product */
strcpy(usetup.name, "Example device");
ioctl(fd, UI_DEV_SETUP, &usetup);
ioctl(fd, UI_DEV_CREATE);
/*
* On UI_DEV_CREATE the kernel will create the device node for this
* device. We are inserting a pause here so that userspace has time
* to detect, initialize the new device, and can start listening to
* the event, otherwise it will not notice the event we are about
* to send. This pause is only needed in our example code!
*/
sleep(1);
/* Key press, report the event, send key release, and report again */
emit(fd, EV_KEY, KEY_SPACE, 1);
emit(fd, EV_SYN, SYN_REPORT, 0);
emit(fd, EV_KEY, KEY_SPACE, 0);
emit(fd, EV_SYN, SYN_REPORT, 0);
/*
* Give userspace some time to read the events before we destroy the
* device with UI_DEV_DESTOY.
*/
sleep(1);
ioctl(fd, UI_DEV_DESTROY);
close(fd);
return 0;
}
Mouse movements
---------------
This example shows how to create a virtual device that behaves like a physical
mouse.
.. code-block:: c
#include <linux/uinput.h>
/* emit function is identical to of the first example */
int main(void)
{
struct uinput_setup usetup;
int i = 50;
int fd = open("/dev/uinput", O_WRONLY | O_NONBLOCK);
/* enable mouse button left and relative events */
ioctl(fd, UI_SET_EVBIT, EV_KEY);
ioctl(fd, UI_SET_KEYBIT, BTN_LEFT);
ioctl(fd, UI_SET_EVBIT, EV_REL);
ioctl(fd, UI_SET_RELBIT, REL_X);
ioctl(fd, UI_SET_RELBIT, REL_Y);
memset(&usetup, 0, sizeof(usetup));
usetup.id.bustype = BUS_USB;
usetup.id.vendor = 0x1234; /* sample vendor */
usetup.id.product = 0x5678; /* sample product */
strcpy(usetup.name, "Example device");
ioctl(fd, UI_DEV_SETUP, &usetup);
ioctl(fd, UI_DEV_CREATE);
/*
* On UI_DEV_CREATE the kernel will create the device node for this
* device. We are inserting a pause here so that userspace has time
* to detect, initialize the new device, and can start listening to
* the event, otherwise it will not notice the event we are about
* to send. This pause is only needed in our example code!
*/
sleep(1);
/* Move the mouse diagonally, 5 units per axis */
while (i--) {
emit(fd, EV_REL, REL_X, 5);
emit(fd, EV_REL, REL_Y, 5);
emit(fd, EV_SYN, SYN_REPORT, 0);
usleep(15000);
}
/*
* Give userspace some time to read the events before we destroy the
* device with UI_DEV_DESTOY.
*/
sleep(1);
ioctl(fd, UI_DEV_DESTROY);
close(fd);
return 0;
}
uinput old interface
--------------------
Before uinput version 5, there wasn't a dedicated ioctl to set up a virtual
device. Programs supportinf older versions of uinput interface need to fill
a uinput_user_dev structure and write it to the uinput file descriptor to
configure the new uinput device. New code should not use the old interface
but interact with uinput via ioctl calls, or use libevdev.
.. code-block:: c
#include <linux/uinput.h>
/* emit function is identical to of the first example */
int main(void)
{
struct uinput_user_dev uud;
int version, rc, fd;
fd = open("/dev/uinput", O_WRONLY | O_NONBLOCK);
rc = ioctl(fd, UI_GET_VERSION, &version);
if (rc == 0 && version >= 5) {
/* use UI_DEV_SETUP */
return 0;
}
/*
* The ioctls below will enable the device that is about to be
* created, to pass key events, in this case the space key.
*/
ioctl(fd, UI_SET_EVBIT, EV_KEY);
ioctl(fd, UI_SET_KEYBIT, KEY_SPACE);
memset(&uud, 0, sizeof(uud));
snprintf(uud.name, UINPUT_MAX_NAME_SIZE, "uinput old interface");
write(fd, &uud, sizeof(uud));
ioctl(fd, UI_DEV_CREATE);
/*
* On UI_DEV_CREATE the kernel will create the device node for this
* device. We are inserting a pause here so that userspace has time
* to detect, initialize the new device, and can start listening to
* the event, otherwise it will not notice the event we are about
* to send. This pause is only needed in our example code!
*/
sleep(1);
/* Key press, report the event, send key release, and report again */
emit(fd, EV_KEY, KEY_SPACE, 1);
emit(fd, EV_SYN, SYN_REPORT, 0);
emit(fd, EV_KEY, KEY_SPACE, 0);
emit(fd, EV_SYN, SYN_REPORT, 0);
/*
* Give userspace some time to read the events before we destroy the
* device with UI_DEV_DESTOY.
*/
sleep(1);
ioctl(fd, UI_DEV_DESTROY);
close(fd);
return 0;
}
Markdown is supported
0% or .
You are about to add 0 people to the discussion. Proceed with caution.
Finish editing this message first!
Please register or to comment