Commit c69d19c8 authored by Simon Glass's avatar Simon Glass
Browse files

binman: Support multithreading for building images

Some images may take a while to build, e.g. if they are large and use slow
compression. Support compiling sections in parallel to speed things up.
Signed-off-by: Simon Glass's avatarSimon Glass <>
(fixed to use a separate test file to fix flakiness)
parent 650ead1a
......@@ -1142,6 +1142,22 @@ adds a -v<level> option to the call to binman::
Building sections in parallel
By default binman uses multiprocessing to speed up compilation of large images.
This works at a section level, with one thread for each entry in the section.
This can speed things up if the entries are large and use compression.
This feature can be disabled with the '-T' flag, which defaults to a suitable
value for your machine. This depends on the Python version, e.g on v3.8 it uses
12 threads on an 8-core machine. See ConcurrentFutures_ for more details.
The special value -T0 selects single-threaded mode, useful for debugging during
development, since dealing with exceptions and problems in threads is more
difficult. This avoids any use of ThreadPoolExecutor.
History / Credits
......@@ -1190,3 +1206,5 @@ Some ideas:
Simon Glass <>
.. _ConcurrentFutures:
......@@ -32,6 +32,10 @@ controlled by a description in the board device tree.'''
default=False, help='Display the README file')
parser.add_argument('--toolpath', type=str, action='append',
help='Add a path to the directories containing tools')
parser.add_argument('-T', '--threads', type=int,
default=None, help='Number of threads to use (0=single-thread)')
parser.add_argument('--test-section-timeout', action='store_true',
help='Use a zero timeout for section multi-threading (for testing)')
parser.add_argument('-v', '--verbosity', default=1,
type=int, help='Control verbosity: 0=silent, 1=warnings, 2=notices, '
'3=info, 4=detail, 5=debug')
......@@ -628,9 +628,13 @@ def Binman(args):
tools.PrepareOutputDir(args.outdir, args.preserve)
images = PrepareImagesAndDtbs(dtb_fname, args.image,
args.update_fdt, use_expanded)
if args.test_section_timeout:
# Set the first image to timeout, used in testThreadTimeout()
images[list(images.keys())[0]].test_section_timeout = True
missing = False
for image in images.values():
missing |= ProcessImage(image, args.update_fdt,,
......@@ -9,10 +9,12 @@ images to be created.
from collections import OrderedDict
import concurrent.futures
import re
import sys
from binman.entry import Entry
from binman import state
from dtoc import fdt_util
from patman import tools
from patman import tout
......@@ -525,15 +527,43 @@ class Entry_section(Entry):
def GetEntryContents(self):
"""Call ObtainContents() for each entry in the section
def _CheckDone(entry):
if not entry.ObtainContents():
return entry
todo = self._entries.values()
for passnum in range(3):
threads = state.GetThreads()
next_todo = []
for entry in todo:
if not entry.ObtainContents():
if threads == 0:
for entry in todo:
with concurrent.futures.ThreadPoolExecutor(
max_workers=threads) as executor:
future_to_data = {
entry: executor.submit(_CheckDone, entry)
for entry in todo}
timeout = 60
if self.GetImage().test_section_timeout:
timeout = 0
done, not_done = concurrent.futures.wait(
future_to_data.values(), timeout=timeout)
# Make sure we check the result, so any exceptions are
# generated. Check the results in entry order, since tests
# may expect earlier entries to fail first.
for entry in todo:
job = future_to_data[entry]
if not_done:
self.Raise('Timed out obtaining contents')
todo = next_todo
if not todo:
if todo:
self.Raise('Internal error: Could not complete processing of contents: remaining %s' %
......@@ -308,7 +308,8 @@ class TestFunctional(unittest.TestCase):
def _DoTestFile(self, fname, debug=False, map=False, update_dtb=False,
entry_args=None, images=None, use_real_dtb=False,
use_expanded=False, verbosity=None, allow_missing=False,
extra_indirs=None, threads=None,
"""Run binman with a given test file
......@@ -331,6 +332,8 @@ class TestFunctional(unittest.TestCase):
allow_missing: Set the '--allow-missing' flag so that missing
external binaries just produce a warning instead of an error
extra_indirs: Extra input directories to add using -I
threads: Number of threads to use (None for default, 0 for
args = []
if debug:
......@@ -342,6 +345,10 @@ class TestFunctional(unittest.TestCase):
if self.toolpath:
for path in self.toolpath:
args += ['--toolpath', path]
if threads is not None:
args.append('-T%d' % threads)
if test_section_timeout:
args += ['build', '-p', '-I', self._indir, '-d', self.TestFile(fname)]
if map:
......@@ -412,7 +419,7 @@ class TestFunctional(unittest.TestCase):
def _DoReadFileDtb(self, fname, use_real_dtb=False, use_expanded=False,
map=False, update_dtb=False, entry_args=None,
reset_dtbs=True, extra_indirs=None):
reset_dtbs=True, extra_indirs=None, threads=None):
"""Run binman and return the resulting image
This runs binman with a given test file and then reads the resulting
......@@ -439,6 +446,8 @@ class TestFunctional(unittest.TestCase):
function. If reset_dtbs is True, then the original test dtb
is written back before this function finishes
extra_indirs: Extra input directories to add using -I
threads: Number of threads to use (None for default, 0 for
......@@ -463,7 +472,8 @@ class TestFunctional(unittest.TestCase):
retcode = self._DoTestFile(fname, map=map, update_dtb=update_dtb,
entry_args=entry_args, use_real_dtb=use_real_dtb,
use_expanded=use_expanded, extra_indirs=extra_indirs)
use_expanded=use_expanded, extra_indirs=extra_indirs,
self.assertEqual(0, retcode)
out_dtb_fname = tools.GetOutputFilename('u-boot.dtb.out')
......@@ -4542,5 +4552,22 @@ class TestFunctional(unittest.TestCase):
data = self._DoReadFile('201_opensbi.dts')
self.assertEqual(OPENSBI_DATA, data[:len(OPENSBI_DATA)])
def testSectionsSingleThread(self):
"""Test sections without multithreading"""
data = self._DoReadFileDtb('055_sections.dts', threads=0)[0]
expected = (U_BOOT_DATA + tools.GetBytes(ord('!'), 12) +
U_BOOT_DATA + tools.GetBytes(ord('a'), 12) +
U_BOOT_DATA + tools.GetBytes(ord('&'), 4))
self.assertEqual(expected, data)
def testThreadTimeout(self):
"""Test handling a thread that takes too long"""
with self.assertRaises(ValueError) as e:
self.assertIn("Node '/binman/section@0': Timed out obtaining contents",
if __name__ == "__main__":
......@@ -36,6 +36,8 @@ class Image(section.Entry_section):
fdtmap_data: Contents of the fdtmap when loading from a file
allow_repack: True to add properties to allow the image to be safely
repacked later
test_section_timeout: Use a zero timeout for section multi-threading
(for testing)
copy_to_orig: Copy offset/size to orig_offset/orig_size after reading
......@@ -74,6 +76,7 @@ class Image(section.Entry_section):
self.allow_repack = False
self._ignore_missing = ignore_missing
self.use_expanded = use_expanded
self.test_section_timeout = False
if not test:
......@@ -7,6 +7,7 @@
import hashlib
import re
import threading
from dtoc import fdt
import os
......@@ -55,6 +56,9 @@ allow_entry_expansion = True
# to the new ones, the compressed size increases, etc.
allow_entry_contraction = False
# Number of threads to use for binman (None means machine-dependent)
num_threads = None
def GetFdtForEtype(etype):
"""Get the Fdt object for a particular device-tree entry
......@@ -420,3 +424,22 @@ def AllowEntryContraction():
return allow_entry_contraction
def SetThreads(threads):
"""Set the number of threads to use when building sections
threads: Number of threads to use (None for default, 0 for
global num_threads
num_threads = threads
def GetThreads():
"""Get the number of threads to use when building sections
Number of threads to use (None for default, 0 for single-threaded)
return num_threads
// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0+
/ {
#address-cells = <1>;
#size-cells = <1>;
binman {
pad-byte = <0x26>;
size = <0x28>;
section@0 {
size = <0x10>;
pad-byte = <0x21>;
u-boot {
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